oa Botswana Notes & Records - The Bakgatla ba ga Mmanaana split 1934-1936: the impact of British sub-imperial rule in Botswana

Volume 32 Number 1
  • ISSN : 0525-5090



In Botswana there are two BaKgatla ethnic groups, namely Mmanaana and Kgafela. Of the two groups, the Mmanaana are little known compared to their cousins, the Kgafela. The Kgafela settled in what was later called the BaKgatla Reserve in 1870 while the Mmanaana settled in the BaNgwaketse Reserve in about 1880. This article therefore, discusses the circumstances surrounding the split of a BaKgatla ethnic group. Mainly using archival sources, this article argues that the pervasive nature of British colonial rule exacerbated a conflict between a paramount chief and his sub-chief.

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