oa Botswana Notes & Records - The Hambukushu of Ngamiland from 1950-1994: a study of social change

Volume 32 Number 1
  • ISSN : 0525-5090



Shakawe was the main centre of my study of the Hambukushu in 1950. It was only a small, mostly Hambukushu and River Bushman village. The mine labourers returning from South Africa upon the conclusion of their enlistment had several days layover in Shakawe. Four field research expeditions were made by me in 1969, 1970 and in 1972 when much of the research was centred at the rural community of Gaugwi, eight miles upstream from Shakawe. By 1987 Shakawe was a thriving trading centre, had greatly increased in population, and was rapidly expanding. The schools brought the greatest opportunities for social change, and WENELA and the mining companies created employment over these years.

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