oa Botswana Notes & Records - An outline history of Monarch Gold Mine Francistown

Volume 33 Number 1
  • ISSN : 0525-5090



Monarch Mine, like the majority of sites of exposed gold mineralisation in south central Africa, was discovered and worked during the period 1100 to 1400 AD by predecessors of the BaKalanga. These peoples were included within the society of the Great Zimbabwe culture at its zenith. Remnant surface stopes on the Monarch and Francis Reefs date from this period, although they are much modified in shape and depth by later mining. The Monarch Reef open stopes have subsequently been back-filled.

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