Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Volume 24, Issue 5, 2013
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 5, 2013
Acute myocardial infarction complicated by acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography : online article - case reportSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 1 –3 (2013)More Less
Acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication of dobutamine stress echocardiography. We describe the case of a diabetic patient who presented with an anterior myocardial infarction complicated by an acute pulmonary oedema and cardiogenic collapse during dobutamine stress echocardiography, requiring five days' hospitalisation. Coronarography could not be performed because of inadequate medical facilities.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy and familial dilated cardiomyopathy : a tale of two cases : online article - case reportSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 4 –7 (2013)More Less
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a form of pregnancy-related heart failure that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Most patients present with acute postpartal heart failure that otherwise resembles the clinical presentation of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). There is increasing recognition that PPCM may be due to genetic factors in a significant proportion of cases. There is evidence that at least 7% of cases of PPCM may be part of the spectrum of familial DCM. We report on two cases of PPCM, with relatives demonstrating familial DCM, both patients displaying autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance, and showing severe cardiomyopathy among proband and affected relatives. Family screening for familial DCM should be indicated in all cases of unexplained PPCM.
Spontaneous retrograde dissection of the ascending aorta in a patient with a bicuspid aortic valve : online article - case reportSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 8 –10 (2013)More Less
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital anomaly associated with structural weakness of the aortic wall. Sudden onset of symptoms in patients with BAV, such as sudden severe back pain, and pulse inequality between the extremities or tension disparity should alert clinicians to acute aortic syndromes, as they require prompt diagnosis and management. Retrograde aortic dissection, which is a rare form of acute aortic syndrome, is an uncommon life-threatening entity and may produce atypical computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging findings, leading to difficulty in diagnosis. We report on a 51-year-old male patient with BAV and spontaneous retrograde ascending aortic dissection. CT findings were confusing and the diagnosis was made via transoesophageal echocardiography. After the diagnosis, the patient was treated with a modified Bentall procedure. He did not have any complications and was stable four months after the operation.
Ventricular tachycardia-based long QT without hypocalcaemia after use of ibandronic acid : online article - case reportSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 11 –14 (2013)More Less
Many drugs are known to cause lengthening of the QT interval. Ibandronic acid is a frequently used agent in the treatment of osteoporosis and is known to cause prolongation of the QT interval due to hypocalcaemia. However, no cases of long QT syndrome associated with ventricular tachycardia (VT) with a serum calcium level within the normal limits have been reported in the literature. We report on a case of a VT-based long QT syndrome associated with the use of ibandronic acid.
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 151 –153 (2013)More Less
The biennial Congress of the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) was held in Dakar from 16 to 19 May 2013 under the patronage of his Excellency, Macky Sall, president of the Republic of Senegal. This meeting was remarkable in the diversity of its 700 participants from English-, French- and Portuguese-speaking Africa. Important aspects of cardiovascular disease in Africa were presented in 195 abstracts and numerous talks; the topics were hypertension, obesity, diabetes, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, coronary heart disease, stroke and rheumatic heart disease. The general assembly meeting was marked by the review and adoption of a new constitution and elections of a new PASCAR governing council that will be in office for the next four years. The new leadership of PASCAR has committed itself to strengthening the administrative infrastructure of the organisation, developing programmes to address education and training needs of African cardiovascular practitioners, developing a pan-African multi-national research platform, and ensuring that ministries of health implement national programmes for the prevention and control of cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases.
Comparison of left atrial function in healthy individuals versus patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 154 –160 (2013)More Less
Left atrial (LA) function has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients after acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate LA function in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE). Fifty-one patients with NSTEMI and 40 age-matched normal control individuals were enrolled in this study. Conventional echocardiographic parameters and global longitudinal strain rate (GLSR) were measured at left ventricular (LV) and LA segments. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with NSTEMI had significantly increased LA volumes but significantly decreased LA emptying fraction and GLSR. LA-GLSR had significant correlations with the 2D Doppler echocardiographic parameters of LA function. In particular, global LA peak negative strain rate during early ventricular diastole (LA-GLSRe) was significantly correlated with both LA 2D Doppler echocardiographic parameters and LV contractile function. This could be suggested as a better indicator to evaluate LA function as a preferred parameter of STE.
A comparison between size of the occluder device and two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiographic sizing of the ostium secundum atrial septal defect : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 161 –164 (2013)More Less
Objectives: Transcatheter closure of a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II) has become an effective alternative for surgical treatment. In this study we evaluated the correlation between the two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiographic (2D TEE) sizing of ASDs and the actual diameter of occluders in patients undergoing device closure.
Methods: The records of 54 patients who underwent transcatheter ASD closure were reviewed. ASD characteristics and maximum defect diameter were evaluated using preprocedure 2D TEE images. Appropriate device size was determined by the balloon sizing method, which measures the balloon occlusive diameter (BOD) via TEE and fluoroscopy. ASD closure was performed under continuous TEE monitoring using the Amplatzer occluder in all patients.
Results: The mean of the TEE-derived maximum defect diameter was significantly lower than the mean of the BOD (17.8 ± 4.5 vs 22.1 ± 5.1 mm; p < 0.001) and the mean size of the implanted occluder device (17.8 ± 4.5 vs 23.3 ± 5.1 mm; p < 0.001). However, a good correlation was found between the TEE-derived defect size and the BOD (BOD = 0.898 × TEE defect size + 6.212, R = 0.824; p < 0.001) and between the TEE measurement and the final size of the implanted Amplatzer (device size = 0.928 × TEE defect size + 6.853, R = 0.822; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: 2D TEE may provide a good equation to predict the BOD or the size of the occluder device; however, further studies are needed to investigate whether it is feasible to perform transcatheter ASD occlusion without balloon sizing.
The optimal time of B-type natriuretic peptide sampling associated with post-myocardial infarction remodelling after primary percutaneous coronary intervention : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 165 –170 (2013)More Less
Aims : To find the optimal time to evaluate plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), which is related to post-myocardial infarction remodelling (PMIR), we measured serial plasma BNP levels according to time protocols after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Background : It has been established that plasma BNP levels can predict the development of PMIR in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the time of plasma BNP sampling associated with PMIR is still controversial.
Methods : We analysed 42 patients who were diagnosed as PMIR on six-month follow-up echocardiography among 131 patients with STEMI. We then compared clinical variables including plasma BNP between the remodelling group and the non-remodelling group. The plasma BNP level was obtained on hospital admission (acute phase), at two to five days (early phase), three to four weeks (late phase) and at the six-month follow up (long term).
Results : Early-phase and long-term BNP levels were higher in the remodelling group. The serial plasma BNP levels, according to study protocols, showed a biphasic pattern of elevation. In multiple logistic regression analyses, early-phase BNP [odds ratio (OR): 1.013, p < 0.01] and acute-phase BNP levels (OR: 1.007, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of PMIR. However, early-phase BNP level was statistically a more powerful predictor of PMIR during follow up.
Conclusion : Consecutive BNP levels after primary PCI showed a biphasic peak elevation during follow up. Early-phase plasma BNP level was an independent predictor of PMIR in patients with STEMI.
Epidemiological and clinical features, ultrasound findings and prognosis of right-sided infective endocarditis in a teaching hospital in Ouagadougou : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 171 –173 (2013)More Less
Introduction : Right-sided infective endocarditis is rare. It accounts about 5 to 10% of all infective endocarditis cases and is prevalent in patients with congenital heart disease, intravascular devices and drug addiction. Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of right-sided endocarditis and evaluate the prognosis after treatment.
Methods : From January 2010 to December 2011 we recruited all patients admitted to Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital for infective endocarditis, and selected those who had a right-sided location. The Duke criteria were used for diagnosis. We analysed entry points and underlying heart disease. The causative organisms were tracked using blood sample cultures. Ultrasound characteristics were described, and treatment and prognosis were evaluated. Patients' follow up was conducted from recruitment to 30 June 2012.
Results : In the two-year period, 14 cases of right-sided infective endocarditis were recorded, including seven cases in children. They accounted for 29.1% of all infective endocarditis cases. The mean age was 25.5 ± 12.5 years (range 9-80 years). The venous route was implicated in 12 cases (85.7%). Blood cultures were positive in 11 patients. The bacteria isolated were Streptococcus pneumonia in six cases, Staphylococcus aureus in three and Hemophilus influenza in two cases. HIV status was positive in three patients. Underlying heart diseases were dominated by congenital heart disease in six cases and peripartal cardiomyopathy in four others. Vegetations were located in the right heart in only 11 cases. With antibiotic treatment, a lowering of temperature was shown within an average of 10 days of follow up. Two fatalities were reported.
Conclusion : This study showed that right-sided endocarditis is common in our clinical practice. This infection was prevalent in patients with congenital heart disease or peripartal cardiomyopathy in our context, and the venous route seemed to be the main entry point.
Maternal imbalance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in HIV-infected women with pre-eclampsia : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 174 –179 (2013)More Less
Angiogenic imbalance contributes to the development of pre-eclampsia. We evaluated the protein expression of the pro-angiogenic placental growth factor (PlGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) compared with the anti-angiogenic soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (sFlt1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) in HIV-infected normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies.
Blood was obtained from 110 pregnant women, enrolled in four groups, namely, HIV-negative normotensives (27); HIV-positive normotensives (31); HIV-negative pre-eclamptics (27) and HIV-positive pre-eclamptics (25), and was used to measure PlGF, TGF-β1, sFlt1 and sEng levels.
Increased sFlt1 and sEng levels were associated with the pre-eclamptics (HIV negative and positive) compared with their counterparts. Decreased PlGF levels were observed between the HIV-negative pre-eclamptics versus HIV-negative normotensives, but levels differed significantly (p = 0.02) among the normotensives (HIV negative and positive). TGF-β1 remained unchanged across all groups. Higher sEng/TGF-β1 ratios were associated with the pre-eclamptics (HIV negative and positive) compared with their counterparts. This study demonstrated increased sFlt1 and sEng levels in pre-eclamptic compared with normotensive pregnancies, irrespective of the HIV status.
Prevalence and determinants of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors : data from a population-based, cross-sectional survey in Saint Louis, Senegal : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 180 –183 (2013)More Less
Background : The incidence of cardiovascular disease is growing worldwide and this is of major public health concern. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors among an urban Senegalese population.
Methods : Using an adaptation of the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk-factor surveillance, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey from 3 to 30 May 2010 on 1 424 participants aged over 15 years. Socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors were collected in step 1. Physical anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were documented in step 2. Blood tests (cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and creatinine levels) were carried out in step 3.
Results : The prevalence of hypertension was 46% (95% CI: 43.4-48%), with a higher prevalence in females (47.9%) than males (41.7%) (p = 0.015), and 50% of these hypertensive were previously undiagnosed. Mean age was 53.6 years (SD: 15.8). In known cases of hypertension, the average length of its evolution was 6 years 9 months (range 1 month to 60 years). Hypertension was significantly associated with age (p = 0.001), socio-professional category (p = 0.003), dyslipidaemia (p < 0.001), obesity (p < 0.001), physical inactivity (p < 0.001), diabetes (p < 0.001) and stroke (p < 0.001).
Conclusion : We found a high prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in this population. There is need of a specific programme for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease in this population.
Pre-treatment before coronary artery bypass surgery improves post-operative outcomes in moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients : cardiovascular topicsSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 184 –187 (2013)More Less
Introduction : Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has traditionally been recognised as a predictor of poorer early outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different COPD stages, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria, on the early surgical outcomes in patients undergoing primary isolated non-emergency CABG.
Methods : Between January 2008 and April 2012, 1 737 consecutive patients underwent isolated CABG in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Gulhane Military Academy of Medicine; 127 patients with the diagnosis of moderate-risk COPD were operated on. Only 104 patients with available pulmonary function tests and no missing data were included in the study. Two different treatment protocols had been used before and after 2010. Before 2010, no treatment was applied to patients with moderate COPD before the CABG procedure. After 2010, a pre-treatment protocol was initiated. Patients who had undergone surgery between 2008 and 2010 were placed in group 1 (no pre-treatment, n = 51) and patients who had undergone surgery between 2010 and 2012 comprised group 2 (pre-treatment group, n = 53). These two groups were compared according to the postoperative morbidity and mortality rates retrospectively, from medical reports.
Results : The mean ages of the patients in both groups were 62.1 ± 7.6 and 64.5 ± 6.4 years, respectively. Thirty-nine of the patients in group 1 and 38 in group 2 were male. There were similar numbers of risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, renal disease (two patients in each group), previous stroke and myocardial infarction in both groups. The mean ejection fractions of the patients were 53.3 ± 11.5% and 50.2 ± 10.8%, respectively. Mean EuroSCOREs of the patients were 5.5 ± 2.3 and 5.9 ± 2.5, respectively in the groups. The average numbers of the grafts were 3.1 ± 1.0 and 2.9 ± 0.9. Mean extubation times were 8.52 ± 1.3 hours in group 1 and 6.34 ± 1.0 hours in group 2. The numbers of patients who needed pharmacological inotropic support were 12 in group 1 and five in group 2. Duration of hospital stay of the patients was shorter in group 2. While there were 14 patients with post-operative atrial fibrillation (PAF) in group 1, the number of patients with PAF in group 2 was five. Whereas there were seven patients who had pleural effusions requiring drainage in group 1, there were only two in group 2. There were three mortalities in group 1, and one in group 2. There were no sternal infections and sternal dehiscences in either group.
Conclusion : Pre-treatment in moderate-risk COPD patients improved post-operative outcomes while decreasing adverse events and complications. Therefore for patients undergoing elective CABG, we recommend the use of medical treatment.
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24 (2013)More Less
We read with great interest the article by Falase et al. in the November 2012 issue of this journal. They stated that there are no documented cases of left ventricular non-compaction in Africa. Furthermore, they propose that this is due to a lack of awareness of this condition among African cardiologists. The purpose of this letter is to highlight that this statement is not entirely accurate.
Can stem cells really regenerate the human heart? Use your noggin, dickkopf! Lessons from developmental biology : review articleAuthor Paula SommerSource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 189 –193 (2013)More Less
The human heart is the first organ to develop and its development is fairly well characterised. In theory, the heart has the capacity to regenerate, as its cardiomyocytes may be capable of cell division and the adult heart contains a cardiac stem cell niche, presumably capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes and other cardiac-associated cell types. However, as with most other organs, these mechanisms are not activated upon serious injury. Several experimental options to induce regeneration of the damaged heart tissue are available: activate the endogenous cardiomyocytes to divide, coax the endogenous population of stem cells to divide and differentiate, or add exogenous cell-based therapy to replace the lost cardiac tissue. This review is a summary of the recent research into all these avenues, discussing the reasons for the limited successes of clinical trials using stem cells after cardiac injury and explaining new advances in basic science. It concludes with a reiteration that chances of successful regeneration would be improved by understanding and implementing the basics of heart development and stem cell biology.
4th All-African conference on heart disease, diabetes and stroke : 11th Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) conference : conference reportAuthor G. HardySource: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 24, pp 194 –196 (2013)More Less
Cardiovascular disease is on the rise in Africa. Evidence indicates an increased prevalence of ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, stroke, cardiomyopathies, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease and disease of the pericardium (HIV/AIDS). Highlights from the PASCAR meeting hosted in Dakar, Senegal, 16-20 May 2013, are reported below. The full set of abstracts can be viewed at http://www.cvja.co.za/onlinejournal/vol24/pascar_2013.