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n Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - Cardiovascular risk factors among patients with chronic kidney disease attending a tertiary hospital in Uganda : cardiovascular topics
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, which is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. Local data about cardiovascular risk factors among CKD patients is generally scanty.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of the common cardio-vascular risk factors among patients with CKD attending the nephrology out-patient clinic in Mulago national referral hospital in Uganda.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which 217 patients with a mean age of 43 years were recruited over a period of nine months. Data on demographic characteristics, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, complete blood count, renal function tests/electrolytes, and lipid profiles were collected using a standardised questionnaire.
Results: One hundred and eleven (51.2%) of the participants were male. Hypertension was reported in 90% of participants while cigarette smoking was present in 11.5%. Twenty-two participants (10.2%) were obese and 16.1% were diabetic. A total of 71.9% had a haemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dl, with the prevalence of anaemia increasing with advancing renal failure (p < 0.001); 44.7% were hypocalcaemic and 39.2% had hyperphosphataemia. The prevalence of abnormal calcium and phosphate levels was found to increase with declining renal function (p = 0.004 for calcium and p < 0.001 for phosphate).
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that both traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors occurred frequently in patients with CKD attending the nephrology out-patient clinic at Mulago Hospital.
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