There are two approaches according to which the criminal liability of a number of persons involved in the commission of the same crime can be judged. On the one hand, there is the uniform or undifferentiated approach: all persons who participated in a criminal action are said to be liable on the same basis. On the other hand a differentiated approach to participation is followed according to which a conceptual distinction is drawn between principals and accessories.
We concluded the foregoing contribution to the present series ofarticles by observing that African states should concentrate on economic, social and technical co-operation if they are to promote the unification of this continent to the benefit of its whole population. In this contribution we noticed that, in furtherance of these aims, the African states opted to employ, besides the continental OAU, the pre-independence alliances and arrangements
It is submitted in the article that the concept of insurable interest should be abandoned in favour of the clear-cut concept of damage, not simply because we can do without insurable interest, but especially because the application of this doctrine had complicated matters in the past and lead to erroneous results. Not only was this doctrine responsible for the refusal of justifiable claims for indemnity (e g in the case of insurance by a shareholder), but it is the cause of certain unjustifiable claims being upheld. The conclusion is unavoidable : whereas an express or implied indemnity-clause is the test for a proper insurance contract, the limit of the insurer's performance is the amount of loss suffered by the insured. Insurable interest is best forgotten.
There is an increasing need, from the employee's point of view, for women to work, and there are better methods and more facilities at hand which enable women with domestic responsibilities to offer their services in the labour market. These women, however, meet with bias and discrimination.
As a result of the increasing human activities in a nationally organized, territorially divided world community, there is a growing need for predictable outcome in legal disputes involving foreign elements. One of the ways of meeting this need is to disseminate existing conflict rules beyond the national boundaries so that justice and the guarantee of equity in transnational scope can be maximized.