This paper descriptionbes a method for rapid estimation of flood peaks anywhere in South Africa, based on existing point rainfall information and regionalized direct runoff hydrographs. A typical diagram and formulae are presented. A worked example is provided in the Appendix.
Unpaved roads, in gravel-surfaced or earth roads, have been in use for millennia but recently problems have been encountered in transferring experience and technology to environments other than those in which they were obtained. In addition, a continual decrease in funding demands that the available funds be applied with the maximum effect, and this requires the use of pavement management system methodology. This paper developed an approach for evaluating unpaved road performance and deterioration.