This paper deals with the effect of isolated local flange buckling, web buckling and combined flange and web buckling on the ductility of steel beams under moment gradient. It shows that the contribution of the individual buckling modes to strain weakening are not of the same magnitude and outlines the need for a fully interactive buckling model.
A steel bridge constructed in the early years of the century had become inadequate for handling the traffic it had to carry and was used in an unsafe manner. The deck of the bridge was removed and replaced with a wider concrete deck acting compositely with the steel girders. Use of the concept of 'stub girder' design, typically employed in high-rise buildings, resulted in an economical and very rapid solution to the problem.