oa Civil Engineering = Siviele Ingenieurswese - Rubble masonry concrete dams - effective labour-intensive construction
Rubble masonry concrete dams offer the opportunity to increase the labour component of a project without a reduction in quality or design. Since the initiation of the civil engineering industry's recent focus on labour-intensive, or employment-creative, construction, economic viability and cost-effectiveness have proved elusive. As a concept, the replacement of machines with person-power in civil construction has, by and large, not proved completely successful in the South African context, even though many different approaches have been tried.
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