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- Volume 50, Issue 1, 2007
Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa - Volume 50, Issue 1, 2007
Volumes & issues
Volume 50, Issue 1, 2007
The influence of Roman law on the practice of slavery at the Cape of Good Hope (1652-1834) : chairperson's addressAuthor John HiltonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 1 –14 (2007)More Less
This article investigates the extent to which Roman Law and received ideas about Roman slavery actually did form the basis on which slavery was practised and administered in the Cape of Good Hope between 1652 and 1834. Cape slavery was governed by plakaaten issued in Batavia as well as in Cape Town, but, particularly in capital cases, recourse was had directly to Roman Law and to the Roman-Dutch writers such as Simon van Leeuwen, Joost de Damhouder, Ulrich Huber, Andreas Gail and others. These writers frequently cite actual Roman laws, especially when considering the appropriate punishment. At this stage of our knowledge of how Roman Law was used in these cases, it is not possible to say whether its effect was ameliorative or pejorative, but there is little doubt that it was used both by owners and slaves, prosecution and defence, from the beginning until the end of this period.
Author John AtkinsonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 15 –28 (2007)More Less
Cartledge's insistence that Alexander was guided by the heroic 'moral code of honour' is considered in terms of paradigms established in Stewart's Honor, and in contrast with Holt's view of the 'Homeric code'. This paper deals first with Alexander's pursuit of honour in the successive phases of his career, and then with his attempt to accommodate competing codes of honour as he won control of the Achaemenid Empire.
Romanos Melodos, 'On the Massacre of the Innocents' : a perspective on ekphrasis as a method of patristic exegesisAuthor J.H. BarkhuizenSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 29 –50 (2007)More Less
The rhetorical genre of ekphrasis was widely employed by patristic and Byzantine authors, especially in their homiletic output. Here we have especially in mind the descriptive homily : As opposed to the exegetical homily, in which the Fathers followed a line-for-line commentary, the descriptive homily follows a methodology according to which the preacher starts from a given (scriptural) episode or passage and then proceeds to develop it freely and elaborately, dramatising it by introducing lively dialogues, monologues and vivid descriptions, in this way taking the audience back in time and inviting them to partake in those far-off biblical events, and in the process rendering those events more vivid. In this form the patristic and Byzantine homily was actually an ekphrasis. In this paper the extensive use of ekphrasis in kontakion 3 (15) of Romanos is analysed as method of exegesis. It concerns the description of war, in this case Herod's slaughter of the Innocents of Bethlehem. Romanos, in line with his model (Basil of Caesarea), closely follows the instructions for the composition of a war description prescribed by the pagan teachers of rhetoric (Theon, Hermogenes).
Author P.R. BosmanSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 51 –63 (2007)More Less
The article questions some scholarly assumptions about the famous anecdote on the meeting between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic. While scholars have rightly placed the story within the topos of the opposition between wise man and king, its interest in the two figures amounts to more than generic exempla and its depiction of Alexander is not necessarily hostile. It seems probable that the original form was not a chreia; rather, later versions were extracted from an extended literary version of such an encounter. An early work satisfying these criteria is the Education of Alexander by Onesicritus, the pupil of Diogenes who accompanied Alexander on his Asian campaign.
Author Andrew DomanskiSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 65 –80 (2007)More Less
The precepts and principles of early education which Plato lays down in the Laws are not confined to a hypothetical ideal state. Collectively, so I argue, they constitute a template to which every positive system of education, ancient or modern, must conform, or at least aspire. This article examines these key principles. Special attention is given to Plato's definition of true education, his warning about the dangers of innovation and change in established cultural forms, the need for the legislator to provide the necessary legal framework for a proper system of education, Plato's use of Egypt as the model of a state in which true education can flourish, and the lessons for our own age in Plato's system of early education.
Author R.J. EvansSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 81 –94 (2007)More Less
Although there may be topical elements in descriptions about senatorial debt in the first century BC, the phenomenon does appear to have been historical. This study attempts to trace the origin of long-standing senatorial debts and how senators may have been affected by the lex Sulpicia of 88 BC. This legislation targeted élite indebtedness by regulating at an extremely low level future allowable debt by senators, which effectively disqualified current members of the oligarchy from office. Had the law been successful, it is possible that Sulpicius and his supporters intended replacing incumbent senators with a new membership drawn from the equestrian order.
Author William J. HendersonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 95 –107 (2007)More Less
This article deals with the much-debated problem of the meaning and reference of the metaphor of the fox in line 5. Philological, historical and literary arguments are marshalled in an attempt to understand the metaphor and its significance in the fragment/poem as a whole. The conclusions reached are that the metaphor signifies that the Athenians, rather than being cunning, have been tricked by a 'fox', and that this 'fox' is a tyrant, probably Peisistratus.
Author Christian LaesSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 109 –127 (2007)More Less
This article serves a double purpose. It aims at offering the most complete collection of epigraphial evidence concerning schoolmasters in the Roman empire, both in the Latin West and the Greek East. It also tackles the issue of the low social status of these educators. Both the Roman system of schooling, which did not draw too narrow a line between the various stages of education, as strategies of self-representation and the concept of 'differential equations' offered possibilities to schoolmasters to somehow escape the stigma of low birth and to proudly present themselves as self-sufficient members of the plebs media.
The ambiguous role of perception : empiricist views and biological perspectives on sense perception among the HippocraticsAuthor Roberto Lo PrestiSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 129 –146 (2007)More Less
Despite the connections between perception and knowledge in Hippocratic medicine, what still remains unclear is the way in which these are structured and how they arise in relation to each other. It is this shadowy area that I plan to address in my paper, dealing with the ways in which the connection between perception and knowledge has been interpreted, and analysing the reception of some Hippocratic passages in which this link has been identified, without, however, revealing its epistemological structure.
My aim is, in the first instance, to argue against an empiricist representation of Hippocratic views on sense perception and, in the second instance, to show the biological root of ai|sqhsi, which combines physiology, theories of cognition and epistemological function, as found in Hippocratic representations.
Author Michael J. ApthorpSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 147 –151 (2007)More Less
M. Bergamin, who argues that Symphosius was, if not a Christian, at any rate familiar with Christian culture, defends concilium, which she takes in the Lucretian sense of 'aggregation, union', referring to the bond between the snail's shell and flesh, but also capable of being interpreted as referring to the union between man's body and soul made possible by the Divine will. Here, says Bergamin, Symphosius is deliberately trying to distract the reader from the riddle's right answer, 'Snail', by playfully suggesting a wrong but plausible answer, 'Soul', while simultaneously hinting at the right answer, inasmuch as concilium sounds like conchylium, which is a marine snail! But this far-fetched and convoluted exegesis is unlikely to convince many.
Il Romanzo classico : forme, testi, problemi, Luca Graverini, Wytse Keulen and Alessandro Barchiesi (edd.) : book reviewAuthor J.L. HiltonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 153 –157 (2007)More Less
This is an introduction to the study of the ancient romances aimed at Italian university students and members of the public interested in the history of story-telling in Classical Antiquity (p. 12). The authors have translated all quotations into Italian and assume no prior knowledge of the subject. A list of references for further reading ('Approfondimenti') follows each chapter and this makes an extremely useful guide to the most recent publications in the field, especially those of continental European scholars, where much interesting work has recently been done and, judging in part by the present volume, continues to be done.
Author Carina MalanSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 157 –160 (2007)More Less
The author succeeds in giving the reader an idea of what it meant to be a child in the Roman World in the Late Republic and Early Empire. By making use of what he calls 'de mentaliteitsgeschiednis van de Romeinse Oudheid', the reader learns what the cultivated male Roman thought about children and childhood. Contributing to an understanding of childhood in Roman times are the black and white illustrations, consisting mostly of photos of statues and relief sculptures, but also of frescoes and depictions on vases. The one illustration which really brings home to one what it meant to be a slave child in the Roman Empire is that of a black child sitting on his haunches, head resting on his knees, bound in chains (143).
Author Clive ChandlerSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 160 –162 (2007)More Less
The hymn addressed to Zeus composed by the Second Stoic scholar Cleanthes is a short text of thirty-nine lines quoted by John Stobaeus in the first book of his Anthology, and preserved in a single important Neapolitan manuscript. Despite its brevity, the hymn is rightly regarded as a text of immense significance. Very few complete texts from the early Stoa have survived (as any examination of Von Arnim's Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta soon makes quite apparent, we rely heavily on later authors for our reconstruction of the doctrines of this philosophical school), and so it is understandable that students of post-Aristotelian philosophy should attribute such value to the ipsissima verba of an early senior Stoic philosopher who had actually known and conversed with the school's founder, Zeno. The text is also fascinating as a proclamation of Stoic doctrine on the interconnectedness of physics and theology, and the impression it gives of sincere pious devotion, particularly since the discourse has been delivered in a traditional format (a hymn) using largely non-technical terms, phrases, and poetic cadences familiar from the established hymnic tradition. There is less of Parmenides here, and more that is Homeric, Hesiodic, or Aeschylean.
Author W.J. HendersonSource: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 162 –169 (2007)More Less
This attractive volume is a worthy contribution to the series Ancient Cultures, which aims to present 'enjoyable, straightforward surveys of key themes in ancient culture' to new-comers to the study of the ancient world. A short time-line, map of the Mediterranean and excellent illustrations of animals and plants from Dioscorides (ed. A. Matthioli, 1598) and of culinary realia add to the book's usefulness and appeal. Each chapter, written by Wilkins (W.), Professor of Greek Culture at Exeter, is preceded by a short introduction by Hill (H.), chef and Honorary Research Fellow at Exeter. A comprehensive Bibliography (281-89), an Index (290-300) and three recipes (277-80) appear at the end.
Source: Acta Classica : Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 50, pp 195 –197 (2007)More Less