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- Volume 24, Issue 1, 2014
Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug - Volume 24, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1, 2014
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24 (2014)More Less
As the Clean Air Journal moves into its fifth decade of existence, several exciting changes have taken place. The journal was launched online with its own dedicated website www.cleanairjournal.org.za in December 2013. A new team of Co-Editors, namely Dr Gregor Feig, Dr Rebecca Garland and Dr Caradee Wright, were appointed in October of 2014. They took over from Dr Gerrit Kornelius who had been the Editor-in-Chief of the journal for 25 years. Seven reputable scientists, policy-makers and practitioners were invited to become members of the Editorial Advisory Board to guide the strategic direction of the journal and to ensure articles of the highest standard. All of these efforts, among several other important activities, are focussed on a key objective for the journal. That is, to obtain for the journal accreditation by the Department of Higher Education and Training and ensure its inclusion in major citation databases, with the end goal of acquiring an impact factor. This will then place the Clean Air Journal as an important reference for publications on air quality, air pollution, its impacts on the environment and the management thereof in Southern Africa. In fact, this has been the core mandate of the journal since its inception as the official journal of the National Association for Clean Air.
Author E. HayesSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24 (2014)More Less
Over half of the world's population currently live in urban areas. Although the global population growth rate is declining, the global population is increasing and is expected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, with an estimated 70% living in towns and cities. This growing population will create more demands on an increasingly stressed planet with limited resources. It will be cities and the associated industrial and commercial activities that will demand the majority of the 40% increase in world energy forecast by 2030. It will be cities that will demand the majority of the 70% increase in food forecast by 2025. It will be in cities where the growing middle classes will be the main consumers of electricity, oil, food beverages, household appliances, cars and other goods and service. This is a potential recipe for continued poor air quality and illustrates the importance of integrated multi-stakeholder strategic planning and coordinated management.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 4 –6 (2014)More Less
Art and air pollution - Sunsets as measure of aerosol optical depth
Air pollution dynamics - Getting to grips with urban ozone without models
Air pollution and human health - Diesel emissions not only a concern in the occupational environment
Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution associated with natural-cause mortality
Author Christiaan PauwSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 7 –9 (2014)More Less
The recent, long awaited, presentations on air pollution offsetting by Dr Thulie Mdluli, Ms Elizabeth Masekoameng and Mr Peter Lukey at the National Business Initiative (NBI), the Air Quality Lekgotla, IUAPPA and Kempton Park and the subsequent discussion focused the attention on the prospect of an air pollution offset dispensation in South Africa. In the presentations themselves and discussion that followed the presentations, the idea of simplicity was mentioned more than once. In what follows, I will discuss the idea of simplicity within the context of air quality offsets. I will argue that to establish an offset dispensation one needs to formulate a small set of principles or axioms on which an offset dispensation is based. One can view simplicity as a system with few axioms or as a system with a small number of propositions following from the axioms - lets call them implications. A system with few implications can certainly be simple but it is also information-poor. A system with a small number of axioms may, on the other hand, be rich in information (meaning that there is a large number of true propositions that follow from its axioms) depending on how fertile the axioms are in creating meaning within the system. I propose that we explore the possibility of finding a limited number of principles to form the basis of an offset dispensation that is deeply simple - i.e. that it has small number of principles but can generate consistent guidelines for complex cases.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 10 –16 (2014)More Less
A peak in the ambient ozone concentration was observed at three of the six ambient air quality monitoring stations in the Vaal Triangle Airshed Priority Area on the second of June 2013. The ozone peak was associated with elevated concentrations of particulate matter, including PM10, PM2.5 and black carbon, but not sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide nor benzene. Back trajectory analysis using Hysplit showed that the air masses containing the high levels of ozone passed over areas influenced by coal fired power stations in the Waterberg, metal processing in the Bojanala region and high intensity fires 30km to 50km upwind of the stations.
Risk perceptions of dust and its impacts among communities living in a mining area of the Witwatersrand, South AfricaSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 22 –27 (2014)More Less
Mining is a major economic activity in many developing countries. In South Africa, gold mining has played a significant role in the development and sustenance of the country's economy, with both positive and negative consequences. In gold mining areas, tailings dams and mine dumps are significant sources of ambient dust, known to be a nuisance, and health risk, to communities living near them and who must find appropriate coping mechanisms to protect themselves. A qualitative study based on five focus groups with sixty-two participants of different ages and sex was carried out in the Witwatersrand mining district of South Africa. All focus groups agreed that they had noticed dust in the air where they live, stating that the dust came largely from mine dumps but also from other sources. They agreed that the dust causes, among others, health problems, and both short-term and long-term coping mechanisms for protecting themselves against excess dust were mentioned yet considered inadequate, i.e. closing windows and doors, watering their yards, paving their yards and planting trees. Little support from government, mines and other organisations was identified as an important perceived barrier to resolving the dust problem. Means for communication of communities' perceptions of the impacts, risks and possible mitigation / adaption measures associated with dust need to be created and supported in a formal risk management plan.
The prevalence of asthma among children in South Africa is increasing - is the need for medication increasing as well? A case study in the Vaal TriangleSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 28 –30 (2014)More Less
Asthma, a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways, is a global public health concern. In southern Africa the prevalence of asthma has increased over the last few decades. In the current study, all 10-year-old learners from three of the schools (one each in Sasolburg, Vanderbijlpark and Vereeniging) that participated in the 1990 Vaal Triangle Air Pollution and Health Study, were selected as the study population for a cross-sectional study conducted in 2010. Both the 1990 and 2010 studies investigated several exposure factors but focussed on respiratory illnesses as main health outcomes. Although the overall ethnicity profile in 2010 was different from that of 1990, the socioeconomic status of the study populations were very similar - the reason being that the same schools were used and the participating children were from the same immediate environment. The results of the 2010 study were then compared to the results of all 10-year-olds, from the same three schools, who participated in the 1990 study. The results showed the difference in prevalence of asthma during the two study years was statistically significant. The difference in the percentage of children who had ever been diagnosed with asthma and were reportedly on medication in 1990 and 2010 was, however, not statistically significant, indicating that although the prevalence of asthma increased, the demand for medication to control the condition may not have increased as well.
Source: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 31 –33 (2014)More Less
Results from air pollution dispersion modelling that was conducted as part of a health risk assessment in the Western Cape is presented in this paper. Modelling was conducted using the Calpuff dispersion model and utilised the meteorological model ready data sets available from the Western Cape Government Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning.
Quantification of emissions generated from domestic burning activities from townships in JohannesburgSource: Clean Air Journal = Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug 24, pp 34 –41 (2014)More Less
Domestic burning activities, specifically in informal settlements, contribute greatly to the air quality problems experienced by most developing urban centres. Low-income households that exist within townships in South Africa house a large portion of the South African population. These households burn vast quantities of coal, wood and other substances to provide for their energy needs. Pollutants emitted as a result of domestic burning are estimated to be one of the leading causes of respiratory illnesses in inhabitants of townships. To better understand the relationship that exists between domestic burning and the resultant pollutants, a method of quantifying these pollutants has been developed for a completely un-electrified settlement, near Johannesburg, using the quantities and type of fuel consumed. Seasonality, availability, price and cultural aspects all have a bearing on the fuel source choice and the quantity consumed. The most significant temporal observations identified for domestic burning are seasonal ones.