oa Conspectus : The Journal of the South African Theological Seminary - Human freedom and God's providence : is there conflict?

Volume 8, Issue 09
  • ISSN : 1996-8167



How can we reconcile human freedom with God's providence? The key, in my view, is bottom-up and top-down causality. These particular terms state that all events in the world are the result of some previous event, or events. Accordingly, all of reality is already in a sense predetermined or pre-existent and, therefore, nothing new can come into existence. But how does this impact on our actions? Are we predetermined to walk a specific path and, if so, how is this accomplished by God without violating our human freedom?

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