Journal for Contemporary History - Volume 27, Issue 3, 2002
Volume 27, Issue 3, 2002
Author Phia SteynSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 1 –13 (2002)More Less
Thirty-one years ago on 10 March 1971, the editor of The Star, John Jordi, launched his newspaper's Cleaner Air, Rivers and Environment campaign in South Africa with the above quotation. For Jordi and many of his contemporaries, the world at large in the early 1970s faced a real environmental crisis that had to be addressed urgently and constructively if humankind and the environment were to survive into the next millennium and beyond.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 14 –32 (2002)More Less
It is well known that the world has become globalised due to growing economic, political, social and cultural integration and interdependence among states. Several kinds of cultural diffusions have contributed to this situation and to the five-fold expansion of the global economy in the last four decades. It could therefore be expected that the quality of life of especially the least industrialised nations in the world would have been improved. However, economic forces of globalisation are moving toward greater inequality among states. This has become at least one of the reasons why many people in Africa are experiencing severe poverty and live on less than one US dollar a day. In addition to poverty, various other negative factors contribute to the lack of sustainable development in Africa: a lack of competitiveness and democracy, high population growth, HIV/AIDS, deficient leadership and war.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 33 –53 (2002)More Less
In the past thirty years environmental problems, and inevitably environmental degradation, have gained considerable momentum. One of the net results of such degradation is manifested in growing numbers of people across the world who are forced to leave degraded and uninhabitable lands. These people are commonly referred to as environmental refugees, and encompass a very diverse category of migrants. It includes people fleeing prolonged droughts, floods, desertification and land degradation, but also those who are threatened by industrial disasters, rising sea levels and development projects such as the construction of large dams. These people are often internally displaced - forced to migrate within their country of origin, or, just as regularly, become international migrants - forced to migrate to a place outside their national borders. Although both these groups are of concern, this article aims explicitly at the issue of environmentally forced international migration due to the potential that this has for impacting on regional political security, economic stability and social dynamics.
Author Andre WesselsSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 54 –81 (2002)More Less
Although the primary role of the South African Navy will always be to defend the Republic of South Africa, its citizens, and its interests, the Navy has an equally important role to play in times of peace, for example to conduct a variety of assistance operations, including diplomatic support in the form of flag-showing cruises. During the first 80 years of the history of the South African Navy, i.e. from 1922 to 2002, its warships and submarines took part in 86 such peace-time flag-showing cruises to foreign countries, visiting about 100 ports in nearly 50 countries on all six continents. In this article a review is given of the flag-showing cruises by South Africa's naval vessels (grey diplomats) from 1 April 1922 to 1 April 2002, and nine phases have been identified. The overall aim is to determine the nature, extent and value of the South African Navy's diplomatic role.
Author Martin SchonteichSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 82 –104 (2002)More Less
This article explores the historic evolution of the prosecution service at the Cape under both Dutch and British control, the two Boer republics, and its twentieth century role - first in the Union and then the Republic of South Africa. Emphasis is given to the struggle the prosecution service waged over the centuries to assert its independence against an interfering executive.
Author Theo NeethlingSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 105 –124 (2002)More Less
Clapham (1998:1) states that the African continent has had a critical impact on defining the limits and possibilities of the post-Cold War order and the place of the UN within that context. The problems and challenges that the UN has faced in Africa have also reflected the peculiar difficulties of peacekeeping endeavours in general, as well as the fact that conflict management in this part of the world has been among the UN's most important and challenging initiatives since the end of the Cold War. In view of these difficulties, the UN Security Council proved to be increasingly willing to allow regional, subregional and ad hoc initiatives in Africa as complementary ways and means of dealing with conflicts on the continent. This reality, as well as developments in Africa in the form of frequent conflicts - and the tendency of these conflicts to generate security problems and humanitarian disasters - compelled African role-players to consider and reconsider response capabilities or regional peacekeeping capabilities of some kind.
Source: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 125 –144 (2002)More Less
The centenary of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) started in October 1999 (although the run-up started about the middle of 1998) and lasted until the middle of June 2002. During that period there were more than a hundred centennial events all over South Africa; and approximately 200 new books on the war were published, as well as more than 100 scientific journal articles and thousands of newspaper articles, plus several new Afrikaans novels and short stories that are set in the Anglo-Boer War.
Author P.W. CoetzerSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 145 –153 (2002)More Less
From 1935 Dr Malan and Gen. Hertzog were at loggerheads concerning the Afrikaner secret organisation, the Afrikaner Broederbond (AB), with Malan, unlike Hertzog, being a member of this organisation. Since the general election of 1943 United Party (UP) leaders feared the future role of the AB in SA politics. The AB played a leading role in the Dutch Reformed Church of the Afrikaners and in many other spheres. Before the 1948 election Premier Jan Smuts forced AB members to choose between the AB and the civil service. Most of the NP politicians were members of the AB and worked towards a republic for SA, thus the UP regarded the AB as a dangerous society. They believed that the AB also had a financial front working towards winning the next election. The UP believed that the AB had taken over the Ossewa-Brandwag (OB) - a pro-Nazi organisation - after the war. At this stage there were only about 3000 members in the AB. Notwithstanding this the UP feared that this organisation was striving towards a dominating Afrikaans community for the country as a whole. They also believed that the NP had been responsible for the establishment of the OB during the war years. They told the country that a Malan Government would be the beginning of frustration and ruin. They knew that the influence of the AB would be instrumental in the outcome of the 1948 election and tried to warn electors against an Afrikaner republic and Afrikaner dominance.
The role of the English rebel cricket tour to South Africa 1989/1990, as a factor in the dismantling of apartheid in South African sportSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 154 –164 (2002)More Less
During the 1980s South African sport was involved in two separate international tours which had far-reaching effects for the boycott actions against apartheid in sport. The Springbok rugby tour to New Zealand in 1981 and the English cricket tour of South Africa during the 1989/90 season were in many ways very different, but have since been identified by many sports historians as the two most violent tours in the history of South African sport.
Some unresolved military ethical dilemmas at the turn of the century : an introspective look at South Africa's recent military historyAuthor J.S. KotzeSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 165 –183 (2002)More Less
The history of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) in the postapartheid era has been dominated to a large extent by the process of transformation. As a result, many of the activities of the Department of Defence towards the end of the last century revolved round the respective phases of the transformation process, described as integration, demobilisation and rationalisation.
Marrying Sparta and Athens : the South African Military Academy and task-orientated junior officer development in peace and war, 1950-2001Author Deon VisserSource: Journal for Contemporary History 27, pp 184 –198 (2002)More Less
A unique skill underpinned by a systematic body of knowledge and theory, acquired through training and education over a long period is the basic characteris - tic of any profession. Before the advent of standing armies and professional officers' corps, military training focussed on weapon skills, tactical drills and physical fitness. Technological development and the concomitant increasing complexity of weapon systems, however, created a need for particular academic knowledge and skills on the part of military officers. This brought the introduction of institutions to impact such knowledge and skills and led to the establishment of military academies in Europe, particularly France, Prussia and England, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.