The past decade has been characterised by unprecedented increases in prison populations. Prison overcrowding has not only become a central issue in corrections, but one of the most critical problems facing the contemporary criminal justice system.
Fear of criminal victimisation has been the subject of research and study by criminologists for more than two decades. Researchers have been particularly interested in descriptionbing and explaining the observable differences in levels of fear between groups, such as between males and females and between young and old.
Criminalistics, as the scientific application of various methods and techniques through which the perpetration of criminal actions are uncovered and resolved, has to rely on highly sophisticated techniques and keep abreast of any technological advances made in this field.
Few crimes have such an impact on a community as serial killing. It is not only the frequency with which these murders are committed, but the brutality and callousness with which it is done that creates a near-panic fear in society. Very little is known about the phenomenon of serial killing, with major research on the topic carried out mainly in the USA.
In his well-known publication, The structure of scientific revolutions Kuhn maintains that a critical analysis of historical events will lead to a definite change of viewpoint by those who dedicate themselves to science.
In this article the causes of women battering are explained in terms of six main perspectives, namely the intrapsychic explanation, interactional and systems theoretical explanations, social learning, feminist-oriented and radical perspectives and finally, the cyclic explanation of violence.