Curationis - Volume 38, Issue 1, 2015
Volume 38, Issue 1, 2015
Source: Curationis 38, pp 1 –8 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1432More Less
Background: Professional nurses work in dynamic environments and need to keep up to date with relevant information for practice in nursing to render quality patient care. Keeping up to date with current information is often challenging because of heavy workload, diverse information needs and the accessibility of the required information at the point of care.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the information needs of professional nurses at the point of care in order to make recommendations to stakeholders to develop a mobile library accessible by means of smart phones when needed.
Method: The researcher utilised a quantitative, descriptive survey design to conduct this study. The target population comprised 757 professional nurses employed at a state hospital. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of the wards, units and departments for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample of 250 participants was selected. Two hundred and fifty structured self-administered questionnaires were distributed amongst the participants. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.
Results: A total of 136 completed questionnaires were returned. The findings highlighted the types and accessible sources of information. Information needs of professional nurses were identified such as: extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis, multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, HIV, antiretrovirals and all chronic lifestyle diseases.
Conclusion: This study has enabled the researcher to identify the information needs required by professional nurses at the point of care to enhance the delivery of patient care. The research results were used to develop a mobile library that could be accessed by professional nurses.
The views of the elderly on the impact that HIV and AIDS has on their lives in the Thulamela Municipality, Vhembe District, Limpopo province : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –8 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1166More Less
Background: HIV and AIDS have a devastating impact on the lives of elderly people, particularly so because they are often expected to take care of their terminally ill children and assume the responsibility of looking after children orphaned by AIDS - in most cases with very little resources.
Objectives: The study sought to achieve to describe the views of elderly people regarding the impact of HIV and AIDS on their lives, to determine the challenges that elderly people living with HIV or AIDS (EPLWHA) face in their daily lives, and to gain a sense of the coping strategies they use to overcome the obstacles they face in relation to HIV and AIDS. Ethical issues, such as permission to conduct the study, informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, withdrawal of participation and measure to ensure trustworthiness, were ensured.
Design: This was a qualitative, explorative, descriptive study. Participants were interviewed using an interview guide. Information provided by the participants was captured on a tape recorder and analysed using open coding, and thereafter collated into themes, categories and sub-themes.
Results: The study findings revealed that HIV and AIDS have serious negative impacts on the lives of elderly people, particularly those living in poverty. The following key areas in relation to EPLWHA were established: psychological or emotional health, as well as household and socio-economic burdens. Considering the role that elderly people play in the community in so far as HIV and AIDS are concerned, primary health promotion and social welfare programmes should be directed at educating all elderly people and their service providers on how to cope with the health and social problems related to HIV and AIDS.
Author Staja Q. BookerSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –5 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1216More Less
Background: The unprecedented global growth in older adults merits high-quality gerontological nursing care. As gerontological nursing grows in visibility in developed and developing countries, nurses must possess a broader worldview of ageing with knowledge of physiological, psychosocial, and cultural issues.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight lessons learned on differences and similarities in ageing and care of older adults in the United States of America (USA) and South Africa (SA); and (2) provide recommendations on how to advance gerontological nursing education in SA.
Methods: A two-week international service-learning project was undertaken by visiting SA and learning about their nursing system and care of older adults. Service-learning is an innovative teaching-learning-service method that provided reflective and hands-on experience of gerontological nursing. This article provides a personal reflection of lessons learned about ageing and gerontological nursing during the service-learning project.
Findings: Care of older adults in SA is in many ways different from and similar to that in the USA. Consequently global nurses should recognise those differences and provide culturally appropriate care. This service-learning experience also demonstrated the need for gerontological nursing education in SA. Based on this, recommendations on how to infuse and advance gerontological nursing education in SA are provided.
Conclusion: Caring for older adults in a global context requires knowledge and understanding of cultures and their values and practices. With a growing population of diverse older adults, there is a need for incorporation of more gerontological education in nursing curriculums and clinical experiences.
Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –11 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1272More Less
Background: An understanding of the predictive effect of socioeconomic characteristics (SECs) of women on maternal health care service utilisation is essential in order to maximize maternal health benefits and outcomes for the newborn.
Objectives: To describe how SECs of women contribute to their exclusion from maternal health benefits in Abuja Municipal Areas Council (AMAC) in Abuja, Nigeria.
Method: A non-experimental, facility-based cross-sectional survey was done. Data were collected from 384 respondents using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The participants were sampled randomly at antenatal care (ANC) clinics in the five district hospitals in AMAC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and measures of inequality. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between SECs (predictors) and maternal health care service utilisation.
Results: There were differentials in the utilisation of maternal healthcare services (ANC, delivery care, post natal care [PNC] and contraceptive services) amongst women with different SECs; and the payment system for maternal healthcare services was regressive. There were inconsistencies in the predictive effect of the SECs of women included in this study (age, education, birth order, location of residence, income group and coverage by health insurance)on maternal healthcare service utilisation when considered independently (bivariate analysis) as opposed to when considered together (logistic regression), with the exception of birth order, which showed consistent effect.
Conclusion: SECs of women were predictive factors of utilisation of maternal healthcare services. There is a need for targeted policy measures and programme actions toward multiple SECs of women in their natural co-existing state in order to optimise maternal health benefits.
Primary health care nurses' management practices of common mental health conditions in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –10 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1168More Less
Background: Psychiatric conditions contribute to 13% of the global burden of diseases and account for one third of years lost because of disability (YLD). Despite the high prevalence of mental health problems, primary health care (PHC) services remain ineffective in managing patients with mental health conditions.
Objectives:The aim of the study was to determine the practices of PHC nurses in the management of psychiatric patients in primary health care clinics in one of the rural districts in South Africa.
Method: A survey was conducted amongst nurses working in several PHC clinics in KwaZulu- Natal (KZN) in order to determine their practices in the management of psychiatric patients. Mixed methods were used to determine the PHC nurses practices in the management of psychiatric patients.
Results: The findings revealed that in five sites (83.3%) treatments are not reviewed every six months, there were no local protocols on the administration of psychiatric emergency drugs, and none of the study sites provided psychiatric patients with education on their medication and its possible side effects.
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it is evident that psychiatric patients at PHC clinics in the district where the study was conducted do not receive quality treatment according to institutional mental health guidelines.
Source: Curationis 38, pp 1 –9 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1441More Less
Background: The number of doctoral programmes in nursing has multiplied rapidly throughout the world. This has led to widespread concern about nursing doctoral education, specifically with regard to the quality of curricula and faculty, as well as to the availability of appropriate institutional resources. In South Africa, no study of these issues has been conducted at a national level.
Objective: To explore and describe the quality of nursing doctoral education in South Africa from the perspectives of deans, faculty, doctoral graduates and students.
Method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. All deans (N = 15; n = 12), faculty (N = 50; n = 26), doctoral graduates (N = 43; n = 26) and students (N = 106; n = 63) at South African nursing schools that offer a nursing doctoral programme (N = 16; n = 15) were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of structured email-mediated Quality of Nursing Doctoral Education surveys.
Results: Overall, the graduate participants scored their programme quality most positively of all the groups and faculty scored it most negatively. All of the groups rated the quality of their doctoral programmes as good, but certain problems related to the quality of resources, students and faculty were identified.
Conclusion: These evaluations, by the people directly involved in the programmes, demonstrated significant differences amongst the groups and thus provide valuable baseline data for building strategies to improve the quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa.
Perceptions of newly-qualified nurses performing compulsory community service in KwaZulu-Natal : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –8 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1474More Less
Background: Compulsory community service (CCS) for nurses commenced in South Africa in January 2008 after it was legislated in the new Nursing Act (Act No. 33 of 2005). Nurses completing their registered nurse programme are registered as community nurse practitioners (CNPs) during the CCS period and make up the largest number of health professionals serving CCS. Whilst health institutions have welcomed CNPs as additional resources for the shortage of nursing staff, no structured guidelines have been provided at a regional level as to how these nurses should be utilised or managed during the CCS year. To date, no large-scale study has been conducted on nurses carrying out CCS in order to generalise the findings.
Objectives: To establish the perceptions of newly-qualified nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Method: A quantitative survey design was used to obtain data from a randomly selected sample of the 2012 cohort of nurses carrying out CCS in KwaZulu-Natal.
Results: CNPs have a positive attitude toward CCS and perceive themselves as being well prepared for the year of community service in terms of knowledge, skills and ability to administer nursing care. They identified positive benefits of the year of community service. The concerns raised were limited orientation and support; and a few CNPs experienced problems of acceptance by the nurses with whom they work.
Conclusion: It is recommended that all health institutions who receive CNPs develop structured orientation and support for these nurses in order to promote their development, thereby enhancing their benefit to the communities they serve.
Clinician perceptions and patient experiences of antiretroviral treatment integration in primary health care clinics, Tshwane, South Africa : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –11 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1489More Less
Background: Primary Health Care (PHC) clinicians and patients are major role players in the South African antiretroviral treatment programme. Understanding their perceptions and experiences of integrated care and the management of people living with HIV and AIDS in PHC facilities is necessary for successful implementation and sustainability of integration.
Objective: This study explored clinician perceptions and patient experiences of integration of antiretroviral treatment in PHC clinics.
Method: An exploratory, qualitative study was conducted in four city of Tshwane PHC facilities. Two urban and two rural facilities following different models of integration were included. A self-administered questionnaire with open-ended items was completed by 35 clinicians and four focus group interviews were conducted with HIV-positive patients. The data were coded and categories were grouped into sub-themes and themes.
Results: Workload, staff development and support for integration affected clinicians' performance and viewpoints. They perceived promotion of privacy, reduced discrimination and increased access to comprehensive care as benefits of service integration. Delays, poor patient care and patient dissatisfaction were viewed as negative aspects of integration. In three facilities patients were satisfied with integration or semi-integration and felt common queues prevented stigma and discrimination, whilst the reverse was true in the facility with separate services. Single-month issuance of antiretroviral drugs and clinic schedule organisation was viewed negatively, as well as poor staff attitudes, poor communication and long waiting times.
Conclusion: Although a fully integrated service model is preferable, aspects that need further attention are management support from health authorities for health facilities, improved working conditions and appropriate staff development opportunities.
Persons living on a disability grant in Mpumalanga province : an insider perspective : original researchAuthor Susanna C.D. WrightSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –7 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1204More Less
In Mpumalanga province, more than 45 000 persons with disability receive a disability grant. Although research regarding social grants in general and disability grants specifically had previously been conducted from various perspectives, none has been carried out in Mpumalanga and none to explore the impact of the disability grant on the lives of the recipients. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the impact of the disability grant on the lives of recipients living in Mpumalanga. The study was conducted as a contextual, exploratory and qualitative study. The target population was persons with a disability receiving a disability grant. Data gathering was conducted in October 2010 using a semi-structured interview technique. The data were analysed in terms of the social and economic impact of the disability grant in the life of the participant. A combination of three qualitative data analysis methods was used to analyse the data. The qualitative findings indicate that although it is an individual grant, the disability grant was used to support the whole family and was frequently the family's only income. Food, clothes and electricity was most frequently bought with the disability grant. Food often did not last for a month. The families were living precariously and any crisis, for example lapsing of the grant, would result in hunger and desperation as a result of their complete dependence on the disability grant. Without insight in how people live their lives, registered nurses may give health education to patients that they cannot implement, perpetuating the burden of disease in South Africa.
Improving the quality of nurse clinical documentation for chronic patients at primary care clinics : a multifaceted intervention : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –12 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1497More Less
Background: Deficiencies in record keeping practices have been reported at primary care level in the public health sector in South Africa. These deficiencies have the potential to negatively impact patient health outcomes as the break in information may hinder continuity of care. This disruption in information management has particular relevance for patients with chronic diseases.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish if the implementation of a structured clinical record (SCR) as an adjunct tool to the algorithmic guidelines for chronic disease management improved the quality of clinical records at primary care level.
Method: A quasi-experimental study (before and after study with a comparison group) was conducted across 30 primary health care clinics (PHCs) located in three districts in South Africa. Twenty PHCs that received the intervention were selected as intervention clinics and 10 facilities were selected as comparison facilities. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used to determine the number of records required to be reviewed per diagnostic condition per facility.
Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of clinical records achieving compliance to the minimum criteria from the baseline to six months post-intervention for both HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment and patients with non-communicable diseases (hypertension and diabetes).
Conclusions: A multifaceted intervention using a SCR to supplement the educational outreach component (PC 101 training) has demonstrated the potential for improving the quality of clinical records for patients with chronic diseases at primary care clinics in South Africa.
Renal unit practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the safety of unfractionated heparin for chronic haemodialysis : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –12 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1447More Less
Background: Chronic haemodialysis for adult patients with end-stage kidney failure requires a patent extracorporeal circuit, maintained by anticoagulants such as unfractionated heparin (UFH). Incorrect administration of UFH has safety implications for patients.
Objectives: Firstly, to describe renal practitioners' self-reported knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) regarding the safe use of UFH and its effects; secondly, to determine an association between KAP and selected independent variables.
Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey by self-administered questionnaire and non-probability convenience sampling was conducted in two tertiary hospital dialysis units and five private dialysis units in 2013.
Results: The mean age of 74/77 respondents (96.1%), was 41.1 years. Most (41/77, 53.2%) had 0-5 years of renal experience. The odds of enrolled nurses having poorer knowledge of UFH than registered nurses were 18.7 times higher at a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.9-187.4) and statistically significant (P = 0.013). The odds of delivering poor practice having ≤ five years of experience and no in-service education were 4.6 times higher at a 95% CI (1.4-15.6), than for respondents who had ≥ six years of experience (P = 0.014) and 4.3 times higher (95% CI 1.1-16.5) than for respondents who received in-service education (P = 0.032), the difference reaching statistical significance in both cases.
Conclusion: Results suggest that the category of the professional influences knowledge and, thus, safe use of UFH, and that there is a direct relationship between years of experience and quality of haemodialysis practice and between having in-service education and quality of practice.
Factors contributing to late breast cancer presentation for health care amongst women in Kumasi, Ghana : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –7 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1287More Less
Background: Delay in presenting breast cancer for health care is dangerous because it can increase the mortality rate amongst affected women. Delaying health care and treatment makes it difficult to manage advanced breast cancer successfully. Understanding the factors that contribute to delays in presentation for health care can save lives.
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to describe the factors which contribute to the late presentation of Ghanaian women with breast cancer for health care at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.
Method: A descriptive qualitative research design was utilised to answer the research question: 'What factors contribute to presenting with late breast cancer for health care amongst Ghanaian women who were treated for breast cancer at a tertiary hospital in Kumasi, Ghana?' A sample of 30 women diagnosed with breast cancer and presented with Stage II and Stage III participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and field notes were conducted for data collection. Content data analysis was used in line with the research question.
Findings: Five themes were discovered as findings. These were: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; fear of cancer treatment and its outcomes; poverty; traditional and spiritual beliefs and treatments and caring for others.
Conclusions: We recommend the development of breast cancer awareness programmes and health education at primary health care level.
Characteristics and critical success factors for implementing problem-based learning in a human resource-constrained country : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –11 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1283More Less
Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced in Malawi in 2002 in order to improve the nursing education system and respond to the acute nursing human resources shortage. However, its implementation has been very slow throughout the country.
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to explore and describe the goals that were identified by the college to facilitate the implementation of PBL, the resources of the organisation that facilitated the implementation of PBL, the factors related to sources of students that facilitated the implementation of PBL, and the influence of the external system of the organisation on facilitating the implementation of PBL, and to identify critical success factors that could guide the implementation of PBL in nursing education in Malawi.
Method: This is an ethnographic, exploratory and descriptive qualitative case study. Purposive sampling was employed to select the nursing college, participants and documents for review. Three data collection methods, including semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document reviews, were used to collect data. The four steps of thematic analysis were used to analyse data from all three sources.
Results: Four themes and related subthemes emerged from the triangulated data sources. The first three themes and their subthemes are related to the characteristics related to successful implementation of PBL in a human resource-constrained nursing college, whilst the last theme is related to critical success factors that contribute to successful implementation of PBL in a human resource-constrained country like Malawi.
Conclusion: This article shows that implementation of PBL is possible in a human resource-constrained country if there is political commitment and support.
Source: Curationis 38, pp 1 –8 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1460More Less
Introduction: Literature provides adequate evidence of a poor perception of nursing within the profession, resulting in high rates of attrition of student nurses and newly qualified nurses. The nursing profession, in particular nurse educators, has an ethical and professional responsibility to find innovative strategies to promote the positive image of nursing amongst student nurses.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to explore the potential of appreciative inquiry (AI) as an intervention teaching strategy to transform student nurses' image of nursing.
Design: A quantitative, quasi-experimental, explorative-descriptive design comprising the pretest, appreciative inquiry as intervention, and the post-test was used.
Methods: Convenience sampling was used to select third and fourth year college and university student nurses in the Gauteng province of South Africa for the pre- and the post-test respectively. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and analysed by SPSS version 20.0.
Findings: The pretest results revealed a mix of positive and negative perceptions of the image of nursing amongst student nurses. The negative perceptions of the image of nursing that needed intervention included the working conditions of nurses, and the perception of nursing as a profession that was not respected and appreciated. The post-test results showed a significant and positive change in the student nurses' perception of the image of nursing as a respected and appreciated profession. Although AI resulted in a negative to positive change in some aspects of student nurses' image of nursing, the negative perceptions of the working conditions of nurses remained and became more negative. The positive image of gender in nursing was enhanced following the implementation of AI.
Conclusion: Appreciative inquiry demonstrated potential as a teaching strategy to produce a positive nursing image change and positive orientation towards nursing amongst student nurses.
Source: Curationis 38, pp 1 –8 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1429More Less
Background: When a daughter perceives rejection from her mother, she is bound to be sensitive to rejection for most if not all of her life. Such an experience influences almost all future relationships.
Objectives: The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the life stories of young women who perceived rejection from their mothers and to formulate guidelines to assist them.
Method: A phenomenological interpretive method that is explorative, descriptive, and contextual was used to explore everyday life experiences. Network sampling was used. In-depth phenomenological interviews were conducted with the young women so that they could define the most important dimensions of their life stories and elaborate on what is relevant to them. They were asked: 'Tell me your life story.' One of the authors also had a life story of perceived maternal rejection; hence an auto-ethnography was critical and was included in the study. Thematic data analysis was applied.
Results: Themes that emerged from the data were that the young women: (1) perceive ongoing challenges in forming and sustaining relationships in their lives; (2) experience their lives as conflicted because their relationship with the central core of their existence, their mother, is perceived as tumultuous; and (3) experience fundamental links to be missing in their 'mother-daughter relationship'.
Conclusion: Only a few women were interviewed regarding perceived rejection from their mothers. Further research in this regard is imperative.
Patient safety culture in a district hospital in South Africa : an issue of quality : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –7 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1518More Less
Background: The Nursing Act 33 of 2005 holds nurse practitioners responsible for all acts and omissions in the delivery of quality patient care. But quality patient care is influenced by a number of factors beyond the control of nurse practitioners. Patient safety culture is one such factor and is seldom explored in hospitals in developing countries. This article describes the patient safety culture of a district hospital in South Africa.
Objectives: The study identified and analysed the factors that influence the patient safety culture by using the Manchester Patient Safety Framework at the National District Hospital, Bloemfontein, Free State Province.
Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted and included the total population of permanent staff; community service health professionals; temporarily employed health professionals and volunteers. The standard Manchester Patient Safety Framework questionnaire was distributed with a response rate of 61%.
Results: Less than half of the respondents (42.4%; n = 61) graded their units as acceptable. Several quality dimensions were statistically significant for the employment profile : overall commitment to quality (p = 0.001); investigating patient incidents (p = 0.031); organisational learning following incidents (p < 0.001); communication around safety issues (p = 0.001); and team working around safety issues (p = 0.005). These same quality dimensions were also statistically significant for the professional profiles. Medical doctors had negative perceptions of all the safety dimensions.
Conclusion: The research measured and described patient safety culture (PSC) amongst the staff at the National District Hospital (NDH). This research has identified the perceived inadequacies with PSC and gives nurse managers a clear mandate to implement change to ensure a PSC that fosters quality patient care.
Author Mokgadi C. MatlakalaSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –5 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1478More Less
Background: Short-term deployment of nurses is usually used within the hospital units in order to 'balance the numbers' or to cover the shortage of staff in the different units. Often nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) are sent to go and assist in other units, where there is not enough nursing staff or when their own unit is not busy.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the views of the ICU nurses regarding short-term deployment to other units.
Method: A qualitative design was used, following interpretivism. The study was conducted in the ICUs of two hospitals in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data were collected through focus group interviews with a purposive sample of registered nurses working in the selected ICUs, transcribed verbatim and analysed using open coding.
Results: The participants shared a similar view that deployment to other units should be based on a formal agreement, with policies and procedures. Consultation and negotiation are recommended prior to deployment of staff. Management should recognise and acknowledge expertise of ICU nurses in their own speciality area.
Conclusion: The findings call for redesign of a deployment policy that will suit nurses from the speciality areas such as ICU.
Factors contributing to incivility amongst students at a South African nursing school : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –6 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1464More Less
Background: This study determined the experiences of nurse educators of the factors contributing to the uncivil classroom behaviours of nursing students at a South African school of nursing.
Objective: To describe what nurse educators consider to be factors contributing to incivility among nursing students in a South African nursing school.
Method: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Eleven nurse educators were purposively sampled for their experiences on the factors contributing to incivility. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted until data saturation.
Results: The data analysed indicated that the educators had varying but often similar perspectives on which factors contribute to incivility among nursing students. The three themes that emerged from the data were academic, psycho-pathological and social factors. The themes were discussed on the basis of their reported impact on classroom behaviour and the implications for the teaching and learning environment.
Conclusion: Conclusions were made that an educational screening system to identify committed students before admission into nursing education should be explored; that a support system should be explored for nurse educators to deal with incidents of uncivil behaviour, perhaps within policy frameworks in the nursing institution; that emotional support should be provided for students who may be experiencing difficulties adjusting to the rigours of post-secondary education; and that a forum should be set up for nurse educators to compare notes and share ideas on what works best in reducing the incidence of uncivil behaviours in the classroom setting.
Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa : original researchAuthor Dorah U. RamathubaSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –6 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1551More Less
Background : Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities.
Purpose : This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Methods : A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12).
Findings : The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels.
Conclusion : Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.
A conceptual framework to facilitate the mental health of student nurses working with persons with intellectual disabilities : original researchSource: Curationis 38, pp 1 –11 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/curationis.v38i1.1481More Less
Background : Student nurses (SNs) experience emotional discomfort during placement in the clinical psychiatric learning environment. This may negatively influence their mental health. Limited support is available to assist both SNs working with persons with intellectual disabilities and nurse educators during clinical accompaniment.
Objectives : This article aims to discuss the generation of this framework to enhance student support.
Method : A theory-generative, qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, contextual design was utilised to develop the framework by applying four steps. In step 1 concept analysis identified the central concept through field work. Data were collected from 13 SNs purposively selected from a specific higher educational institution in Gauteng through two focus group interviews, reflective journals, a reflective letter, naïve sketches, drawings and field notes and analysed with thematic coding. The central concept was identified from the results, supported by a literature review and defined by essential attributes. The central concept was classified through a survey list and demonstrated in a model case. In step 2 the central concepts were placed into relationships with each other. The conceptual framework was described and evaluated in step 3 and guidelines for implementation were described in step 4. The focus of this article will be on generating the conceptual framework.
Results : The central concept was 'the facilitation of engagement on a deeper emotional level of SNs'. The conceptual framework was described and evaluated.
Conclusion : The conceptual framework can enhance the educational practices of nurse educators and can SN's practices of care for persons with intellectual disabilities.