African Entomology - Volume 10, Issue 2, 2002
Volumes & issues
Volume 10, Issue 2, 2002
Rwandaptera montanus, a new species of South African Carventinae, with a key to the carventine genera of the Afrotropical Region (Heteroptera : Aradidae)Source: African Entomology 10, pp 161 –169 (2002)More Less
Rwandaptera montanus sp. n., a second apterous species of the genus, is described and illustrated and its chromosome number of 2n=16XY is recorded. It occurs in a few evergreen forests in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. Whereas most genera of apterous Carventinae have relatively small distribution areas, the opposite seems to be true of Rwandaptera Heiss as the genus was originally described from Rwandain central Africa, more than 3000 km north of Mpumalanga. Keys to the two species and to all Carventinae genera of the Afrotropical Region are provided.
Cytogenetics and karyotype evolution of the genus Miteronotus Jacobs (Heteroptera : Aradidae : Carventinae) with an assessment of the possible role of pseudopolyploidy in their karyotype evolutionSource: African Entomology 10, pp 171 –184 (2002)More Less
The cytogenetics and karyotypes of the four species belonging to the apterous carventine genus Miteronotus are described and figured and idiograms are presented. The diploid chromosome numbers of the species vary from 2n=20XY to 2n=32XY as follows: M. viginti has 2n=20XY; M. labeosus, 2n=26XY; M. bucculentus, 2n=27X1X2Y; and M. knysnaensis, 2n=32XY. It is argued that the ancestral chromosome number of Miteronotus is 2n = 28XY and that of the Aradidae and Carventinae is 2n=14XY. The roles of pseudopolyploidy and fragmentation in the evolution of the 28XY karyotype from the 14XY karyotype are considered. The evolution of the respective chromosome numbers and karyotypes of the species from the ancestral 28XY karyotype by means of chromosome fusions and fragmentations are discussed. Intraspecific variation in the relative sizes of the sex chromosomes of some of the species is reported and discussed.
Author I.M. MillarSource: African Entomology 10, pp 185 –233 (2002)More Less
A key is provided to distinguish the 50 genera of Pseudococcidae recorded from South Africa. Diagnostic morphological features are provided for each genus, the general distributions and host plant ranges of the included species are noted, and the 109 mealybug species recorded from South Africa are listed.
Identification of Anopheles parensis (Diptera : Culicidae) using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence variationSource: African Entomology 10, pp 235 –239 (2002)More Less
Anopheles funestus Giles (Diptera : Culicidae) is arguably the most efficient vector of malaria in Africa. It belongs to a group of nine morphologically similar species, most of which play no role in malaria transmission. Studies on the An. funestus group are hampered by the difficulties in identifying members of the group. A polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR SSCP) assay can accurately distinguish three species within the group, namely An. funestus Giles, An. rivulorum Leeson and An. leesoni Evans. However, the SSCP gel profiles of two additional species, An. parensis Gillies and An. vaneedeni Gillies & Coetzee, although different from the above three species, overlap in their profiles, leading to misidentification. We report on the development of an additional PCR assay able to discriminate between An. vaneedeni and An. parensis on the basis of fragment size variation after amplification of the ITS2 region of rDNA. Combining these two assays it is possible to identify five of the most common species of the An. funestus group found in southern Africa.
The species of Leucopis, subgenus Leucopella Malloch (Diptera : Chamaemyiidae), from northeastern Africa and YemenSource: African Entomology 10, pp 241 –264 (2002)More Less
The chamaemyiid subgenus Leucopis (Leucopella) Malloch differs from all other Leucopinae in the presence of one to several small setae along the posterior edge of the anepisternum. As far as was known previously, members of this subgenus were larval predators attacking mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), but current evidence suggests they attack other coccoids as well. The northeastern African fauna of this subgenus, found along various parts of the Great Rift Valley, appears distinct from that of southern Africa. Four new species are described from northeastern Africa, L. (L.) ardis (Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo), L. (L.) euryvitta (Eritrea), L. (L.) spatula (Eritrea), and L. (L.) yaromi (Ethiopia); the type species of the subgenus, Leucopis africana Malloch (Kenya, Eritrea, Ethiopia), is redescribed; and the first species known to occur across the Red Sea on the Arabian Peninsula is described as new, L. (L.) vanharteni (Yemen), extending the known range off continental Africa.
Checklist of Afrotropical species of the genus Chaetocnema Stephens (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae : Alticinae) : synonymies and geographical distributionAuthor M. BiondiSource: African Entomology 10, pp 265 –284 (2002)More Less
A checklist of species of the flea beetle genus Chaetocnema Stephens known from the Afrotropical Region is given. The following new synonymies are proposed: Chaetocnema abyssinica Jacoby, 1907 = C. alisanda alisanda Bechyné, 1959 = C. alisanda dissculpta Bechyné, 1959 = C. alisanda musosa Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema coletta Bechyné, 1955 = C. abstracta Bechyné, 1955 = C. kindia Bechyné, 1955, syn. n.; Chaetocnema congoana Weise, 1916 = C. congoana Bryant, 1928, syn. n. (species transferred to the genus Carcharodis Weise, 1910); Chaetocnema dialloha Bechyné, 1955 = C. dalaba Bechyné, 1955, syn. n.; Chaetocnema dubreka Bechyné, 1955 = C. foutana Bechyné, 1955, syn. n.; Chaetocnema gahani Jacoby, 1897 = C. marshalli Jacoby, 1899, syn. n.; C. gregaria Weise, 1910 = C. sierraleonis Bryant, 1928, syn. n.; Chaetocnema kibonotensis Weise, 1910 = C. cupreovirens cupreovirens Laboissière, 1942 = C. cupreovirens coerulea Laboissière, 1942 = C. kenyensis Bryant, 1948 = C. allochroma Bechyné, 1954 = C. johannesburgensis Bechyné, 1954 = C. elsa Bechyné, 1959 = C. distorta Bechyné, 1960 = C. upemba Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema latipennis Pic, 1911 = C. monticola Laboissière, 1942 = C. boma Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema ljuba Bechyné, 1955 = C. segueia Bechyné, 1955 = C. szumowskii Bechyné, 1955, syn. n.; Chaetocnema lufira Bechyné, 1960 = C. lusinga Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema metallina Csiki, 1940 = C. dilaticollis Scherer, 1962, syn. n.; Chaetocnema miloensis Bechyné, 1955 = C. collarti Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema montana Bryant, 1928 = C. caparti Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Collartaltica cryptostoma Bechyné, 1959 = Chaetocnema moyoensis Scherer, 1962, syn. n.; Chaetocnema mukana Bechyné, 1960 = C. piceipennis Scherer, 1962, syn. n.; Chaetocnema nahelia Bechyné, 1955 = C. guineensis Bechyné, 1955, syn. n.; Chaetocnema ndesei Laboissière, 1942 = C. cephalica Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema nigripennis Laboissière, 1942 = C. buyebala Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema nkolentangana Bechyné, 1955 = C. nkolentangana kaziba Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema njalensis Bryant, 1928 = C. depressa Laboissière, 1942 = C. coya Bechyné, 1955 = C. laboissierei Scherer, 1962, syn. n.; Chaetocnema pastoria Bechyné, 1955 = C. houisi Bechyné, 1955, syn. n.; Chaetocnema schaeflini (Stierlin, 1866) = C. villiersi Bechyné, 1955, syn. n.; Chaetocnema smaragdina Scherer, 1962 = Terpnochlorus janssensi Bechyné, 1960, syn. n.; Chaetocnema tenebrosa Laboissière, 1942 = Collartaltica hipostoma Bechyné, 1968, syn. n.; Chaetocnema zumpti Bechyné, 1954 = C. doryphthalma Bechyné, 1960 = C. gemmatifrons Scherer, 1962, syn. n.. The following new combinations are established: Chaetocnema nigrolucens Bechyné, 1960 = Collartaltica nigrolucens (Bechyné, 1960) comb. n.. Chaetocnema tenebrosa Laboissière, 1942 = Collartaltica tenebrosa (Laboissière, 1942) comb. n.. Exhorina brincki Bechyné, 1959 = Chaetocnema brincki (Bechyné, 1959) comb. n..; Brinckaltica tongaatensis Bechyné, 1959 = Chaetocnema tongaatensis (Bechyné, 1959) comb. n.. As regards to Chaetocnema krishna and C. mahensis, species described by Maulik (1931) from the Seychelles, they are to be attribute to a new genus currently being described. The following taxa are considered good species: Chaetocnema barkeri Jacoby, 1906; C. suturalis Bryant, 1948; C. obscura Laboissière, 1942, stat. n.. Moreover, lectotypes are designated for: Chaetocnema abyssinica Jacoby, 1907; C. acutangola Weise, 1910; C. antennata Jacoby, 1897; C. batophiloides Abeille de Perrin, 1909; C. bevinsi Bryant, 1928; C. capensis Bryant, 1928; C. compressipes (Baly, 1876); C. darwini Bryant, 1928; C. dunbrodensis Jacoby, 1906; C. frereensis Jacoby, 1899; C. gahani Jacoby, 1897; C. kibonotensis Weise, 1910; C. kenyensis Bryant, 1948; C. marshalli Jacoby, 1899; C. mashonana Jacoby, 1897; C. montana Bryant, 1928; C. natalensis Baly, 1877; C. njalensis Bryant, 1928; C. pulla Chapuis, 1879; C. purpurea Jacoby, 1906; C. semiregulata Jacoby, 1897; C. sierraleonis Bryant, 1928; C. subaterrima Jacoby, 1900; C. subquadrata Jacoby, 1897; C. suturalis Bryant, 1948; C. tablensis Bryant, 1928; C. turneri Bryant, 1928; C. varicolor Jacoby, 1899; C. wollastoni Baly, 1877; C. zeae Bryant, 1926. Finally, Chaetocnema tibialis (Illiger, 1807) is added to the Afrotropical fauna. Information concerning the type material, updated geographical distribution (integrated with much new data) and taxonomic comments are reported.
An overview of the African flannel moths (Somabrachyidae) (Zygaenoidea : Lepidoptera), including their putative relationshipsAuthor H. GeertsemaSource: African Entomology 10, pp 285 –295 (2002)More Less
The Somabrachyidae consist of the following genera : Somabrachys Kirby confined to northern Africa and Spain, Psycharium Herrich-Schäffer and Parapsycharium Geertsema endemic to South Africa and possibly Boisduvalodes Viette from Madagascar. The family is poorly known and research over the past decade has revealed more South African taxa. A historical review of the familial placement of Somabrachys and Psycharium indicates considerable confusion, often with unsubstantiated subjective allocation. Based on some characters of phylogenetic importance, the relationships of and within the Somabrachyidae are briefly discussed. The classificatory part includes references to familial descriptions, diagnostic features of Somabrachyidae and a description of the various life stages, the latter section largely based on S. aegrotus, supplemented by Psycharium, Parapsycharium and other undescribed taxa from South Africa.
The identity and recognition of African Tetrastichus species (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) associated with fruit flies (Diptera : Tephritidae)Source: African Entomology 10, pp 297 –304 (2002)More Less
The identity of the African fruit fly (Diptera : Tephritidae) parasitoids Tetrastichus giffardii Silvestri, T. giffardianus Silvestri, T. dacicida Silvestri and T. oxyurus Silvestri (Hymenoptera : Eulophidae) is discussed. Tetrastichus dacicida is synonymized with T. giffardii. Characters to recognize and differentiate Tetrastichus giffardii, T. giffardianus, and T. oxyurus are presented. Lectotypes are designated for all four of these species.
Phylogeny of the bee tribe Fideliini (Hymenoptera : Megachilidae), with the description of a new genus from southern AfricaAuthor M.S. EngelSource: African Entomology 10, pp 305 –313 (2002)More Less
A cladistic analysis of the bee tribe Fideliini was undertaken based on adult morphology. All 11 described species of the tribe were included for analysis from which a single topology resulted. The Chilean genus Neofidelia was found to be monophyletic as was the African lineage. The subgenera Fidelia (Fidelia) and F. (Fideliana) were recovered as monophyletic, while F. (Parafidelia) was identified to be paraphyletic. The new genus Fideliopsis is proposed for Fidelia ornata (Cockerell) and F. major (Friese), both previously included in F. (Parafidelia). Fideliopsis is supported as the sister group of Fidelia sensu lato. Fidelia (Parafidelia), in the new sense it is considered herein, is monophyletic and sister to the subgenera Fideliana + Fidelia sensu stricto. The biogeography and plant associations of Fideliini are briefly considered.
The life history and host specificity of Teleonemia vulgata (Hemiptera : Tingidae), a potential biocontrol agent of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae)Author J.R. BaarsSource: African Entomology 10, pp 315 –324 (2002)More Less
A species of Tingidae, Teleonemia vulgata Drake & Hambleton, was evaluated as a potential biocontrol agent of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) in South Africa. Several indigenous and ornamental plant species related to L. camara supported the survival and development of the nymphs of T. vulgata. However, adult reproductive development trials indicated that some of these species were relatively inferior in supporting the development of the female reproductive system. Furthermore, the adults preferred L. camara as a host plant when the related species were simultaneously exposed in a multi-choice situation. The preliminary host specificity results suggests that T. vulgata may have a host range that is suitably narrow to justify its release in South Africa, but further choice trials will be required before permission for release is sought. These results indicate that T. vulgata is suitable for release in other countries (e.g. Australia) where there are no native Lantana or Lippia species.
Temperature-dependent development of Megalurothrips sjostedti and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera : Thripidae)Source: African Entomology 10, pp 325 –331 (2002)More Less
Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) are among the most serious pests of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris var. Monel in Kenya and occur in all major growing areas. The former seems to be prevalent during cold and rainy periods while the latter is mainly a problem during hot and dry conditions. The development of the two species was studied at temperatures ranging from 15 °C to 30 °C. The average developmental times of each stage are given. For both species, the developmental times decreased with an increase in temperature. The degree days required to complete development from egg to adult were 212 and 256 above the estimated threshold temperatures of 9.6 °C and 9.0 °C for M. sjostedti and F. occidentalis, respectively. Between 19 and 23 generations of M. sjostedti and between 17 and 20 generations of F. occidentalis could possibly develop under Kenyan field conditions in one year. Overall mortality was lowest at 25 °C. Mortality rates for both species decreased from larval instars to adult and were higher for M. sjostedti than for F. occidentalis. Since the developmental times were not different, the differential pest status of M. sjostedti and F. occidentalis must be a result of other factors.
Reduced consumption and use of pods of Vigna species (Leguminosae) by Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae)Source: African Entomology 10, pp 333 –340 (2002)More Less
The consumption and use of pods of some Vigna (Family: Leguminosae) species by Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae) were investigated in the laboratory under an ambient temperature of 25 ± 2 °C and 60 ± 20 % relative humidity. The effect of morphological and anatomical characteristics of the pods on their nutritional status was also assessed. Larval mass gain on pods of cowpea cultivars, IT84S 2246 and TVu 13731, was significantly higher than on pods of wild cowpea, TVnu 863, cowpea cultivar, IT91K 180, V. oblongifolia, TVnu 42 and V. vexillata, TVnu 72. The relative consumption rate (RCR) and relative growth rate (RGR) were significantly lower on TVnu 72 pods compared with other plants. Approximate digestibility (AD) was significantly higher on pods of IT91K 180, TVnu 42 and TVnu 863 compared with other plants. There was no difference between plants for efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD). Strong, significant positive correlations were found between mass gain and ECD (r = 0.90), RCR and RGR (r = 0.89), as well as RGR and ECI (r = 0.84). The density of glandular trichomes on pods of TVnu 72 was significantly higher than on pods of IT84S-2246 and TVnu 863. The density of nonglandular trichomes was similar among plants, but these trichomes were significantly longer on pods of TVnu 72 than on other Vigna species. There were strong, significant negative correlations between the length of the nonglandular trichomes and RCR,RGR and ECI. Of the 3-4 different layers of cells found in the pod wall of the Vigna species, thickness of the fourth (innermost) layer (endocarp) was significantly negatively correlated with RGR and ECI. Similarly, the thickness of the entire pod wall was significantly, negatively correlated with larval mass gain. Our findings suggest that long, non-glandular trichomes and thick pod walls reduce consumption and use of pods of Vigna species by M. vitrata.
Development of a system for sampling population levels of subterranean Eriosoma lanigerum (Homoptera : Aphididae) in apple orchardsSource: African Entomology 10, pp 341 –344 (2002)More Less
Sampling systems for population studies of subterranean woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Homoptera : Aphididae), are not available. Therefore, a system for monitoring underground population levels of this species was developed. A standard soil sample was taken to a depth of 15 cm using an auger with an internal diameter of 5 cm. Either a hand or mechanical auger may be used. Distance from the trunks of apple trees, and the amount and nature of root material in the samples, affected the number of aphids recorded. More aphids were recorded in soil samples containing root material, particularly if the roots had galls resulting from the feeding of E. lanigerum, than in samples in which there were no roots. The number of E. lanigerum in samples decreased as the distance from the trunk at which they were taken increased. The distance from the trunk at which samples were taken was standardized to 30 cm. The system will be suitable for detecting changes in subterranean population levels over time and for comparing soil treatments for woolly apple aphid control, but not for decision making regarding the necessity for control actions.
Source: African Entomology 10, pp 345 –349 (2002)More Less
Conservation of any taxon requires sound information on its distribution and abundance. Modern area selection techniques are critically dependent especially on distribution data, yet for poorly surveyed taxa, such as invertebrates, these are often not available. In this paper we bring together gradsect biological survey methods and protected area selection algorithms to address this problem. We present an approach which places survey routes, based on the gradsect survey design method of spanning maximum environmental gradients, in areas poorly or completely unsurveyed/sampled. This 'record absence gradient selection' technique can be used to plan further efficient and effective field surveys for the collection of distribution data for inadequately sampled taxa. This method is not intended as a replacement for distribution modelling techniques, but rather as an addition to the toolbox used by conservation planners.
The identity of Apanteles halfordi Ullyett (Hymenoptera : Braconidae), a parasitoid of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera : Plutellidae) : short communicationAuthor G.L. PrinslooSource: African Entomology 10, pp 351 –353 (2002)More Less
Following widespread resistance of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), to insecticides there has in recent years been considerable global interest, also in South Africa, in the biological control of this notorious pest of cruciferous crops (Waladde et al. 2001). Formerly widely known as P. maculipennis (Curtis), its occurrence in South Africa is of particular significance because of the rich and diverse complex of parasitoids that is associated with this moth in this part of the African continent (Kfir 1997, 1998).
The first records of the genus Simognathus (Acari : Halacaridae) from southern Africa, with a species description : short communicationAuthor S. ProchesSource: African Entomology 10, pp 354 –356 (2002)More Less
Mites of the family Halacaridae (Acari: Prostigmata) are primarily marine and include species that occur offshore to the ocean depths. Around 40 of the 1000 known halacarid species are ascribed to the genera Simognathus Trouessart and Acaromantis Trouessart & Neumann, constituting the subfamily Simognathinae (Otto 2000). The Simognathinae are characterized by a gnathosoma with dorsally inserted, 2-3 article palpi, and the first pair of legs transformed into pincers. The subfamily has been recorded worldwide, being more diverse in tropical waters, but no records are known from southern Africa. One new species from Park Rynie and Port Edward (KwaZulu-Natal) is described below, and the presence of S. glareus Bartsch is reported from the Western Cape.
Digitivalva (Digitivalva) delaireae sp. n. (Lepidoptera : Acrolepiidae), a potential biological control agent for Delairea odorata (Asteraceae) : short communicationSource: African Entomology 10, pp 357 –360 (2002)More Less
The first author received a series of specimens of an acrolepiid moth from K. Tuck of The Natural History Museum, London, requesting an identification. These specimens were found to represent a new species from the genus Digitivalva. The original intention was to publish the species description as part of a major revision of the Acrolepiidae of the Afrotropical Region. However, the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC-PPRI) is currently investigating the potential of this moth as a biological control agent against D. odorata and has therefore requested the description to be made available as a matter of urgency. An opportunity is hereby provided to summarize available biological information.
Weevil-fungus interaction on Amaranthus hybridus (Amaranthaceae) in South Africa : short communicationSource: African Entomology 10, pp 361 –364 (2002)More Less
Amaranth (Amaranthus spp., Amaranthaceae) is a potentially valuable food crop, with both seed (Early 1985) and vegetable (Stallknecht & Schultz-Schaeffer 1991) varieties offering excellent possibilities for improving human nutrition, especially in impoverished semi-arid regions. Increasing interest in amaranth is ascribed to its high protein and mineral content, C4 photosynthetic pathway, high genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity, and high degree of drought tolerance (Dowton 1972; Hauptli 1977; Jain et al. 1979; Kaufmann & Haas 1983). Studies to elucidate the biotic and abiotic factors that could affect successful cultivation of amaranth as a crop in South Africa were initiated during 1995.
Arthropods associated with poultry manure in the Western Cape Province, South Africa : short communicationSource: African Entomology 10, pp 365 –370 (2002)More Less
The problem of synanthropic filth flies associated with confined poultry production has formed the subject of comprehensive reviews in the literature (Legner & Poorbaugh 1972; Axtell & Arends 1990; Meyer 1990). Legner & Olton (1970) conducted a worldwide survey and compared adult predator and scavenger insect populations associated with domestic animal manure that accumulated in, for example, poultry houses, dairies, horse and hog pens. Although their collection sites included South Africa, only bovine manure, and not poultry manure, was sampled. Hulley (1983) surveyed the flies that breed in poultry manure and their potential natural enemies at several sites in the Eastern Cape Province. He concluded that the use of natural enemies of the flies, within the context of integrated pest management, was an economically attractive alternative to control by insecticides alone.