African Entomology - Volume 9, Issue 2, 2001
Volumes & issues
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2001
Source: African Entomology 9, pp 97 –103 (2001)More Less
Series of larval specimens of the genus Afrobaetodes Demoulin (Ephemeroptera : Baetidae) from Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania exhibit heretofore undocumented intraspecific variability. Specimens from Guinea, Ivory Coast and Senegal represent new distribution records. Afrobaetodes pugio Gillies and A. intermedius Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty are shown to be synonyms of A. berneri Demoulin, and A. delicatissimum (Barnard) is shown to be a synonym of A. pusillus (Navás). The larval stage of Afrobaetodes and the species A. berneri are redescribed. Ataxonomic synopsis summarizes the new revisions.
Review of the primitive blister beetle genus Iselma, with a description of the first instar larva (Coleoptera : Tenebrionoidea : Meloidae)Source: African Entomology 9, pp 105 –129 (2001)More Less
The genus Iselma, a primitive group of blister beetles from southern Africa, is reviewed. Included are the first description of its first instar larva based on two Namaqualand species (I. flavipennis and I. pallidipennis), partial information on behaviour (sexual and asexual), and a summary of bionomics, with records of host plants, habitat preference, and elevational distribution. Two new species from Namibia (I. piscatrix and I. deserticola) are described, and remarks on the taxonomy of various other species are provided. Two new synonymies are proposed: I. longispina Kaszab, 1952 = I. okiepana Péringuey, 1909, syn. n.; I. namaqua Péringuey, 1909 = I. flavipennis Haag-Rutenberg, 1879, syn. n. A species catalogue, with complete distribution records, is provided.
Source: African Entomology 9, pp 131 –135 (2001)More Less
Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier (Hymenoptera : Apidae) extends from South Africa to Ethiopia but includes local populations of varying morphology. The honeybees of Uganda previously represented an important biogeographical gap in defining the population structure of A. m. scutellata, but have now been resolved by morphometric analyses of worker honeybees analysed with multivariate techniques. Honeybees of lower altitudes (< 2000 m) formed one distinct morphocluster typical of A. m. scutellata throughout the continent, while those at higher altitudes (> 2000 m) formed a separate distinct cluster of large, dark bees. The latter occur as an archipelago of mountain ecotypes of A. m. scutellata.
Life history of the threatened Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae)Source: African Entomology 9, pp 137 –151 (2001)More Less
The behaviour and life history of the threatened Karkloof blue butterfly, Orachrysops ariadne (Butler) (Lepidoptera : Lycaenidae), were studied between 1997 and 1999. The butterfly is now known from four sites in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. O. ariadne is univoltine and on the wing in March and April, when it utilizes eight species of nectar plants. The oviposition plant is Indigofera woodii H. Bol. var. laxa H. Bol. (Fabaceae), an erect variety. This butterfly is ant-dependent, with the young larva being taken into the nest of Camponotus natalensis (F. Smith) (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) where development continues, including pupation. Indications are that the critical factor limiting population levels is oviposition plant availability.
Source: African Entomology 9, pp 153 –162 (2001)More Less
Thrips (Thysanoptera) were collected on mango trees (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae)) from 1992-1996 in the main mango production areas in South Africa to identify the complex of species associated with this crop and to monitor their abundance. Different monitoring techniques were used, which included sampling of flowers, fruit and leaves and the use of both yellow card and dispersal / emergence trapping methods. Fifteen thrips species were recorded, eleven belonging to the family Thripidae and four to the family Phlaeothripidae. The citrus thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii Faure, and the red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard), were the only two species that caused lesions on the fruit. Numbers of S. rubrocinctus were usually low in mango orchards and did not seem to be of economic importance. By contrast, Scirtothrips aurantii was abundant on new growth, causing stunting of growth and leaf malformation. Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin) and Haplothrips bedfordi Jacot-Guillarmod were the only predatory thrips recorded. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), was collected from mango flowers in the Letsitele area, while Thrips acaciae Trybom, Thrips tenellus Trybom and S. aurantii were the most abundant species in the flowers.
Evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin using contact bioassays in a malaria vector control programme in Mpumalanga Province, South AfricaSource: African Entomology 9, pp 163 –166 (2001)More Less
Field assessment of the residual effect of deltamethrin (20 mg/m2) against Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera : Culicidae) mosquitoes was performed during evaluation of the malaria vector control programme in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Ten treated sleeping rooms, five of which were mud- and five cement-walled, were used in bioassays with laboratory-reared An. arabiensis. The bioassays were run for seven consecutive months after treatment. Seven months after treatment deltamethrin-treated surfaces were still completely effective against the susceptible strain of An. arabiensis, with a 24-hour holding mortality of 100%.
Source: African Entomology 9, pp 167 –175 (2001)More Less
Techniques are described for the continuous rearing of Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) on an artificial diet. The insect was reared for 20 successive generations at 25 °C, 85 % RH and photoperiod 12 : 12 h. The larval stage lasted on average 27.6 days for males, and 28.5 days for females. The pupal stage lasted on average 13.4 days in both sexes, and mean total development time (egg to adult) was approximately 50 days. The mean pupation rate was 80 %. Adult emergence rate was 74 %, with a mean sex ratio of 1 : 0.9. Females laid an average of 514 eggs of which 52 % hatched. Additional experiments were conducted to develop techniques to improve oviposition by moths, and to manipulate larval, pupal and egg incubation times. Mating and hatching rates were similar with wooden-framed cages containing 35 males : 30 females and plastic, bottle cages with 4 males : 3 females used in the routine rearing. Pupation was delayed by 16 days when larvae were kept at 20 °C instead of 25 °C; adult emergence was delayed by 8-27 days when pupae were kept at 15 °C instead of 25 °C; and hatching of eggs was delayed by 3-7 days when eggs were kept at 15 °C for 7-9 days instead of 25 °C. Studies on larval diapause termination indicated that diapause could be manipulated to provide pupae and moths for use in the mass-rearing colony. The optimum pupation rate (70 %) was obtained by watering diapause larvae daily for six days (compared to 40 % pupation rate for larvae receiving no water), with pupae forming over a mean period of 12.3 days (compared to 43.9 days to pupation for larvae receiving no water).
The butterfly fauna of the Noyau Central, Lama Forest (Republic of Benin), with notes on its ecological composition and geographic distributionSource: African Entomology 9, pp 177 –185 (2001)More Less
The Noyau Central (c. 4777 ha) in south-central Benin is the largest remaining natural forest within the Dahomey Gap. Based on field work conducted in 1998, a preliminary list of 83 butterfly species is presented for this largely unknown core area of the Lama Forest. Forty butterfly species were documented for the first time in Benin. Forty-one are true lowland forest species not found in savanna. Overall species richness was higher in clearings than in closed forest. However, a high proportion of forest species, especially those with a more restricted geographic range, were exclusively captured in the forest patches. Because other forest areas in Benin are much smaller, the Noyau Central is likely to contribute critically to the conservation of the country's butterfly fauna.
Pseudocloeon cataractae (Crass) (Ephemeroptera : Baetidae) : new combination and lectotype designation : short communicationSource: African Entomology 9, pp 187 –188 (2001)More Less
Considerable clarification of taxonomic concepts and phylogenetic relationships within small minnow mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) has resulted from recent studies involving Afro-tropical genera and species (Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 1996a, b, 1997a, b, 1998a-c; Barber-James & McCafferty 1997; McCafferty et al. 1997; Lugo-Ortiz et al. 1999; Lugo-Ortiz et al. 2001).
Complement to the catalogue of type specimens of Miridae (Heteroptera) in the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale (Tervuren, Belgium) : short communicationSource: African Entomology 9, pp 189 –192 (2001)More Less
Chérot & Pauwels (2000) provided a list of the 1305 Miridae type specimens preserved in the 'Musée Royal de l'Afrique centrale' Tervuren, Belgium (MRAC). Unfortunately, it was not possible at that time to introduce in the catalogue some type-specimens of recently described African species of Cylapinae Kirkaldy, 1903 and Palaucorinae Carvalho, 1956. Moreover, several of Schmitz's types of the first of these subfamilies were accidentally omitted. We list these specimens below.
First record of Palirhoeus eatoni (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) from sub-Antarctic Heard Island : short communicationSource: African Entomology 9, pp 193 –194 (2001)More Less
The Ectemnorhinus-group of genera is a small, monophyletic taxon within the Brachycerinae, comprising 36 species and restricted to the South Indian Ocean Province (SIP) Islands of the Southern Ocean (Chown 1994; Kuschel & Chown 1995). Of the six genera within the group, two are restricted to just a single archipelago (Christensenia to Îles Crozet and Disker to Îles Kerguelen), a third occurs on two island groups (Canonopsis on Îles Kerguelen, and Heard and McDonald Islands), while the other genera are more widespread, occurring on several archipelagos (Kuschel & Chown 1995).
The establishment of Dendrosoter caenopachoides (Hymenoptera : Braconidae) introduced into South Africa for the biological control of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera : Scolytidae), with additional notes on D. sp. nr. labdacus : short communicationSource: African Entomology 9, pp 195 –198 (2001)More Less
The European bark beetle, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), although widely distributed within Europe, southern Russia (Schwenke 1974) and North Africa (Chararas 1964), is essentially a Mediterranean species (Mendel 1987). Within its native range O. erosus is regarded as a minor pest, colonizing dead and dying trees (Schwenke 1974), and is able to kill moribund or stressed trees (Chararas & M'Sadda 1973). The males produce an aggregation pheromone that attracts beetles of both sexes (Giesen et al. 1984) to an ephemeral habitat (such as a wind-blown tree), which is fully utilized. The beetles and their larvae feed on the cambium and phloem and so cause underbark girdling of the tree.
Aphytis chionaspis (Hymenoptera : Aphelinidae), a parasitoid introduced to South Africa from Thailand for the control of mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera : Diaspididae) : short communicationSource: African Entomology 9, pp 199 –201 (2001)More Less
The mango scale Aulacaspis tubercularis (Newstead), which is of Asian origin, is a widespread pest throughout the mango-producing areas of South Africa, where it causes considerable losses to the export industry because of its cosmetic damage to fruit. Through an initiative of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) - Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops (ITSC), several attempts at introducing parasitoids for the biological control of this pest in South Africa were made during 1992-1995 (Labuschagne & De Beer 1995). This entailed a search for parasitoids in Taiwan, Pakistan, India, Singapore and Malaysia that yielded at least four unidentified species of the genus Aphytis. This is an important group of primary ecto-parasitoids of diaspidid scale insects. None of these species could, however, be reared successfully in quarantine. Subsequently, a consignment of parasitized mango scales imported from Thailand in 1995 yielded yet another unidentified species of Aphytis. This species was successfully propagated in quarantine, initially at ARC - Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI), Pretoria and later at the facilities of ITSC in Nelspruit (Labuschagne et al. 1996).
The purpose of this study was to determine the identity of the species from Thailand, which was previously referred to in the literature as 'Aphytis sp.' and which has since become established in South Africa after it was released at various localities in the mango-growing areas of Mpumalanga and the Northern Province during 1996-1997 (Labuschagne et al. 1996; Daneel & Dreyer 1997). The species has subsequently been identified as A. chionaspis Ren, which was originally described from China as a parasitoid of the diaspidid Chionaspis cinnamomicola (Takahashi) (Ren 1988). A diagnosis and comments on its placement within the A. lingnanensis group of species are provided here to facilitate the recognition of this poorly known parasitoid, that was hitherto known only from its type material, which has been lost.
Author T.E. CrouchSource: African Entomology 9, pp 203 –204 (2001)More Less
This treatise of terms used in the field of entomology is astonishingly comprehensive. Approximately 43 000 definitions are included and these cover the names of prominent entomologists, phrases used in the discipline and 28 000 cross-referenced terms. The terms are derived from all major entomological subdisciplines: behaviour, biochemistry, ecology, morphology, physiology, pest management, taxonomy and systematics.
Author P. GovenderSource: African Entomology 9, pp 204 –205 (2001)More Less
It was common practice in the past for entomologists working in the field of forest entomology to follow developments in insect pest management in northern hemisphere temperate forests, and adapt these trends and recommendations to southern hemisphere situations. South Africa, as an example, has a diversity of temperate winter rainfall, temperate constant rainfall, temperate cold summer rainfall, temperate warm summer rainfall and sub-tropical summer rainfall forestry areas.
Hymenoptera : Evolution, Biology and Biological Control, A.D. Austin & M. Dowton (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor C.D. EardleySource: African Entomology 9, pp 205 –206 (2001)More Less
The insect order Hymenoptera comprises the bees, wasps, ants and sawflies. In many terrestrial biodiversity studies this group has emerged as one of the more abundant and speciose. Amid the diverse life forms are eusocial species, predators, parasites and many forms of herbivory, such as external feeders, pollen gatherers and gall formers. Between and within these varied life forms are a host of behavioural patterns.
Author P.W. BatemanSource: African Entomology 9 (2001)More Less
I have been waiting for this book for some time with anticipation. This volume, with 30 contributors and edited by Larry Field, is the first synthesis of what we know about the Stenopelmatoidea and Gryllacridoidea, the fascinating and bizarre groups of orthopterans known as 'King Crickets' that includes the famous 'Parktown Prawns' of South Africa.