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- Volume 17, Issue 2, 2005
Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa - Volume 17, Issue 2, 2005
Volume 17, Issue 2, 2005
Author Andrew ThatcherSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 1 –3 (2005)More Less
This special edition of Ergonomics SA provides the reader with five of the papers presented at the Fourth International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics, CybErg 2005, as well as an edited version of the discussions on one of the papers. As described in the special edition of CybErg 2002, this is web-based academic conference. A web-based (or virtual) conference, such as CybErg, operates on the same principles as a face-to-face conference.
Source: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 4 –11 (2005)More Less
A new package for training farmers in making ergonomics improvement in daily work life was developed and applied in four provinces in Vietnam. The training package was based on the WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) methodology for participatory training of farmers in low-cost improvements learnt from local good practices. The package consisted of local good examples, an action checklist, an illustrated guide, planning and reporting sheets. Core instructors, trained by a 10-day course, organized two-day workshops for farmer trainers in cooperation with local project support committees comprising labour, health agencies and farmers' associations. These farmer trainers then guided farmers through group work involving neighbourhood farmers. This two-stage training programme led to many low-cost improvements in materials storage and handling, workstation design, machine safety, control of hazard sources, welfare facilities and environmental protection. The results were facilitated by; (a) presenting local good examples in these six technical areas, (b) emphasizing low-cost ideas locally available, and (c) small group discussions on practicable improvements. Presentation of basic ergonomics principles with the help of photographs showing local examples was found useful. Experiences in the four provinces confirmed that farmer trainers, when guided to use an action-oriented training package, could enable farmers to make many low-cost improvements learned from local good practices.
Author D.H. O'NeillSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 12 –22 (2005)More Less
Transport systems in industrially developing countries can not be taken for granted as in more advanced countries. Rural transport needs are rarely met by Government programmes which do not address local requirements at the community or village level. More than 30 modes of transport are used in rural sub-Saharan Africa, most of them being classified as non-motorised transport (NMTs). Human porterage dominates, usually in the form of head-loading. This is the least economically effective mode of transport, but is attractive in requiring no or minimum cash outlay. Surveys of subsistence and smallholder farmers in Kenya and Uganda have revealed almost total reliance on NMTs for crop production activities with some use of motorised modes of transport for marketing. The most attractive and feasible way of reducing the effort and drudgery of human porterage is to increase the use of bicycles. As both human porterage and bicycle use, which can be strenuous, will remain dominant in rural areas while current levels of poverty continue, the application of ergonomics to develop local improvements in transport aids and technologies is urgently needed.
A comparative study of physiological cost in manual handling tasks between trained and untrained workers : research articleSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 23 –30 (2005)More Less
This paper presents the results of a study to determine the differences in the heart rate and subjective perception of fatigue levels in trained and untrained workers performing manual handling jobs. Ten trained workers and 10 untrained office workers of an organisation participated in the study. Workers were asked to perform a manual handling job of lifting and lowering 8kg boxes at 12 repetitions per minute. Investigations of heart rate and subjective perception of fatigue level revealed statistically significant differences between trained and untrained workers. Untrained workers showed heart rates and fatigue levels higher by 25% and 65% respectively. These results have implication for pre-employment training of workers expected to perform manual handling jobs.
Author Marcelo Marcio SoaresSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 31 –41 (2005)More Less
This paper describes a user centred-design method in which the "voice of the disabled customer" can be translated into product requirements in a form that designers and manufacturers can use. Wheelchairs were chosen as the product for study. The methods emerged from surveys of wheelchair designers, prescribers (physiotherapists and occupational therapists), rehabilitation engineers, users and carers on their views on wheelchair design, assessment, prescription and use. The user-centred method for products for disabled people comprises a set of 11 phases including: Preliminary Strategic Planning, Approaching the Users, Investigating the Problem, Product Planning, Concept Design, Prototyping and Testing and Verification.
Author Andrew I. ToddSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 42 –53 (2005)More Less
The purpose of this review paper is to provide a synopsis of the findings of papers on pushing and pulling; and to identify areas of contention which require further in depth analysis. It is evident from reviewing the published papers on pushing and pulling that there is a lack of consensus as to which one of these two actions has the greatest force production. The main problem is probably the lack of standardized methodology in push-pull research. Furthermore, even when similar methodologies have been used the description of postures adopted during testing by the subjects varies greatly from paper to paper. The various studies have employed different postures and also imposed different restrictions on the postures adopted during experimentation, making comparisons between findings difficult. Much emphasis has been placed on the evaluation of static pushing and pulling tasks, and there is a clear need for further research into dynamic pushing and pulling. Additionally to date the focus of much of this research has been on the biomechanical stresses placed on the body with little attention being given to the physiological cost of pushing and pulling.
Author Andrew ToddSource: Ergonomics SA : Journal of the Ergonomics Society of South Africa 17, pp 54 –58 (2005)More Less
The following extracts are the edited discussions posted to the bulletin board in discussing the paper by Todd (see this issue) focused on the increased prevalence of research into pushing and pulling in industry worldwide. Two discussion threads are included in this paper: one focusing specifically on the differences between pushing and pulling, and one on the lack of consensus within push/pull research which lead into a more general discussion on the application of ergonomics in situ. The contributor's names and photographs have been removed.