Gender and Behaviour - Volume 11, Issue 1, 2013
Volume 11, Issue 1, 2013
Gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by disciplinary panels of selected Kenyan secondary schoolsSource: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5252 –5271 (2013)More Less
The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of school categories. The study employed mixed methods approach and collected both quantitative and qualitative data using questionnaire and interview protocol. Participants of the study comprised seventy-eight disciplinary panel members (45 males and 33 females) of ten secondary schools. The results revealed gender differences in decision making behaviours by members of Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels, gender differences in the perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and differences between single-sex schools and coeducational schools on presenting disciplinary behaviours perceived to negatively affect disciplinary tones of schools, the latter possibly to indicate gender differences in behaviour expectations of students depending on categories of schools.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5272 –5277 (2013)More Less
Teenage pregnancy rates remain on the increase in Makurdi metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of teenagers in Makurdi metropolis regarding teenage pregnancy. A total of two hundred and eighty six adolescents (286) participated in this survey which included 119 (40.8%) males and 164 (56.2%) females. Also 199 (68.2%) of the adolescents are In-school while 87 (29.8%) are Out of school. A self developed questionnaire was used to collect data. Four hypotheses were generated and tested using independent t-test, and the findings indicated that there was significant difference between male and female adolescents on attitude towards teenage pregnancy (t (281) = 1.90, P<0.05) and their perception of teenage pregnancy (t (275) = -1.99, P<0.05). Also it was found that there is no difference between In School and Out of School adolescent attitudes towards teenage pregnancy (t (284) = 0.024, P>0.05). Equally, male and female adolescents share similar perceptions of the causes of teenage pregnancy. Based on the findings, it was recommended that multi-faceted and multi-sectoral approaches be used in tackling the issues of teenage pregnancy in Nigeria. It was also suggested that sexuality education should not only be included in the school curriculum but be made functional both at primary and secondary school level.
Author M.C. OgwokhademheSource: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5278 –5284 (2013)More Less
The study investigated consequences of women trafficking as perceived by working class people in Edo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling was employed to select 500 workers who were sampled from government workers from the various federal government ministries, self employed and traders. Six local governments were randomly selected from the eighteen local governments that comprised the three senatorial districts of Edo State. The instrument titled, "Consequences of Women Trafficking Questionnaire" (CAWOTQ) was used to elicit relevant data from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistic of frequency count and percentage was used to analyze the research question one while the inferential statistic of analysis of variance and t-test was used to analyze the hypotheses generated for the study. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The findings of the study showed that working class people in Edo State perceived "society" to have the lion share of the consequences of women trafficking while "personal or individual" suffered less from the consequences of women trafficking. Gender of the respondents does not influence their perception on the consequences of women trafficking. Age, marital status, educational qualification and religion of the respondents on the other hand influence their perception on the consequences of women trafficking in Edo State. The counseling implications of this study therefore is that because the "society" tend to suffer more from the incidence of women trafficking, counsellors are called upon to make counselling services available at the various educational level so as to expose the evil of the traffickers and their act to the entire society; also to create more awareness and sensitization programmes to make sure that the entire society and more importantly grassroot sensitizing programmes need to be organized so as to rescue to vulnerable groups (villagers, women and children) of this evil act of slavery in disguise. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the homes and families are the people that make up the society, therefore parents, guardians and welfare officers should work hand in hand to educate homes, parents and youths about the morals (cultural, social and religion) that were the backbone for the society before which has been lost to economic hardship and greediness so as to bring back the lost glories to homes and the entire society and the nation at large.
Gender stereotyping and female pupils' perception of studying Advanced Level Sciences : a survey of one province in ZimbabweSource: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5285 –5296 (2013)More Less
In spite of advances in the field of science and technology, females are still under-represented in the sciences. The study sought to explore the perceptions of female pupils regarding studying Advanced level sciences in one province in Zimbabwe. The descriptive survey design was employed. One hundred female pupils learning sciences at either Ordinary or Advanced level in ten selected secondary schools in the province participated in the study. Data was collected through questionnaires and focus group discussions. Findings indicate that female pupils have a negative perception towards studying Advanced level sciences and that the low participation of female pupils in Advanced level sciences stem from their lack of confidence in studying subjects that are regarded as masculine in the society. Schools need to implement programmes designed to alter the negative perception of female pupils towards participation in Advanced level sciences and educate them on the benefits derived from studying advanced sciences.
What's her story : understanding the life story of a female offender within the South African contextAuthor Nontyatyambo Pearl DastileSource: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5297 –5309 (2013)More Less
Mainstream criminological, feminist, sociologists and historians emphasise the role, typology and provide accounts of the reasons for female involvement in crime. This concern is taking place within a broader context of increasing numbers of women who end up confined to institutions of incarceration. While existing research on women in South African correctional centres has enabled researchers to map-out the routes to criminality among women, more often the empirical approaches adopted lead to generalisations that do not reveal the complex contexts and lived existential circumstances of the women who find themselves in institutions of incarceration. This paper seeks to do two things. First, it provides a critique of the empiricist nature of studies conducted on women in prison. Second, it deploys a life histories approach to understand female criminality in South Africa. The research is based on empirical data gathered from three correctional centres in Johannesburg, Thohoyandou and East London Correctional Centres. The author posits that a life histories approach has two advantages. First, life histories approach avoids the danger of generalisations that ignores contextual issues. Second, life histories approach assumes a bottom up format that empathises with the narratives of the incarcerated women.
Author Agatha OgwoSource: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5310 –5315 (2013)More Less
This study examined the effects of gender (male /female) on the perception of the quality of relationship between adolescents and their parents. 289 adolescents drawn from four secondary schools in Port Harcourt, Rivers state Nigeria, were used as participants for the study. They comprised 145 male and 144 females. A 14-item questionnaire designed by the researcher was the instrument used to access adolescent parent relationship. The cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient for the 14-item questionnaire was 0.79. Data was analysed with chi-square statistics. Result showed that there is a statistically significant difference in males and females' perception of their relationship with their parents, X2 cal =21.26; X2 critical 7.815, df 3.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5316 –5322 (2013)More Less
There are indications that gender influences involvement in risky activities including sexually risky behaviour. The present study therefore sought to explore gender differences in responsible sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents. Using a cross-sectional survey design, two hundred and fifty In-School adolescents drawn from Secondary Schools in Ondo State, South West Nigeria participated in the study. Participants were made up of 97 (38.8%) males and 153 (61.2%) females, with ages ranging from 11 to 23 years with a mean of 15.5 and standard deviation of 2.7. A structured questionnaire containing two sections was utilized for data collection. Section A tapped demographical information such as age, sex, an religion while Section B is the sexual behaviour scale developed by Oluwatelure, (2011). The Cronbach alpha of the scale in the present study was .90. T-test of independent means was used to test the hypothesis. Result revealed significant gender difference in responsible sexual behaviour ( t (246) = -4.08; p<.05). Female adolescents were found to show significantly higher positive disposition to responsible sexual behaviour than male adolescents. It is thus recommended that intervention be put in place to infuse the virtue and values of responsible sexual behaviour in males while effort should be made to sustain and improve on responsible sexual behaviour among females.
Influence of transformational and transactional leaderships, and leaders' sex on organisational conflict management behaviourAuthor Oladimeji Jamiu OdetundeSource: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5323 –5335 (2013)More Less
Conflict is an inevitable organisational feature with implications for both functional and dysfunctional effects on organisational life depending on how it is managed. Effective management of organisational conflict is suggested to depend on the quality of organisational leadership behaviour. This study therefore investigated the effects of transformational and transactional leadership styles and leaders' sex on organisational conflict management behaviour. Data on measures of transformational and transactional leadership styles, leaders' sex and organisational conflict management behaviours were collected from one hundred and six male and female employees of eights service organisations in Lagos and Ibadan. Employees were accidentally selected. Results revealed that effective organisational conflict management behaviour is more related to transformational leadership than transactional leadership, there is no significant difference between male and female leaders and there is no significant interaction between leaders' sex and leadership style in effective conflict management behaviour. Implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5336 –5341 (2013)More Less
This study explored consumers' perceptions towards visual merchandising displays and to determine which aspects of visual merchandising displays are the most important to consumers. The primary research question posed by the literature was to determine which aspects of visual merchandising displays are relevant and important to consumers. The findings showed that a prominent visual stimulant and important aspect of visual merchandising displays was colour, which creates visual attraction and stimulation. Other important aspects of visual merchandising that were identified were the positioning of displays and the use of space, lighting as well as the neatness of displays. A further important aspect that was noted was that visual merchandising displays should provide information about the products sold in store. It became clear from the findings that visual merchandising displays have a functional role to play in apparel marketing.
Gender and peer influence on substance abuse among undergraduates in Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, NigeriaSource: Gender and Behaviour 11, pp 5342 –5349 (2013)More Less
This is a survey research study which investigated gender and peer influence on substance abuse among undergraduates in Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. 513 undergraduates were purposively selected for the study. The researchers designed the instrument, Gender and Peer Influence on Substance Abuse Inventory (GAPISAI) used in collecting data from the respondents. The data collected were analysed using percentages, Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient formula and t-test statistical analysis. The three formulated hypotheses were accepted by the results of the finding. The researchers suggested that all fresh and stale students in the University should be exposed to Self Concept Assertiveness Training (SCAT) and Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programme (SARP).