Gender and Behaviour - Volume 6, Issue 1, 2008
Volume 6, Issue 1, 2008
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1462 –1478 (2008)More Less
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and quota sampling. Results indicate high rates of sexual and physical violence, 17% of the girls reported having been raped, and 26.3% reported to have experienced sexual and / or physical violence. Predictors for having experienced physical and / or sexual violence among girls and boys included socio-economic variables, HIV risk behaviour and substance use.
The results of this study have important implications for understanding and preventing adolescent sexual assault, physical violence and HIV risk in South Africa.
Author Gbadebo Olubunmi AdejumoSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1480 –1493 (2008)More Less
This study investigated psychosocial predictors of involvement of women as victims of human trafficking using. This descriptive study had four independent variables- "coping strategies", "self-esteem", "risk taking attitude" and "social support". The dependent variable was involvement of women as victims of trafficking in persons. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 300 participants from Lagos and Ogun States for this study. Four survey instruments were adopted in this study - The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Attitude Scale (RAS) and Involvement in Trafficking in Person Scale (ITPS) was developed by this researcher Two hypotheses were tested and findings indicated significant combined and relative contributions of psychosocial factors identified as predictors of involvement of women as victims of trafficking in persons. These findings emphasized the roles of communities in preventing rather than punishing the crime of human trafficking. The young girls that were denied necessary social support either perceived or tangible might have high propensity to take risk, have poor self esteem and adopt emotional coping strategies. This situation coupled with high level of poverty serve as plausible to fall prey or enticed by the bait of traffickers. It was recommended that various government agencies and parastatal should ensure enforcement of compulsory universal basic education, discourage disparity against girl child education and educate family exposing children to danger through cultural practices such as child fostering.
Stereotype endorsement and mathematics-related behaviour among female secondary school students in the Kingdom of LesothoAuthor H. Johnson NentySource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1494 –1517 (2008)More Less
By endorsing the stereotypic belief that Mathematics is a male-only subject, some females accept the limitation placed on them by the gendering process and this inhibits the identification, development and utilization of their Mathematics ability for the development of self and the society. To determine the extent and effect of such endorsement on Mathematics performance and related behaviour of girls, a survey analytic study involving 442 randomly selected junior secondary school girls in the Kingdom of Lesotho was carried out. The results of appropriate data analyses to test thirteen research hypotheses showed a low level of stereotype endorsement of Mathematics as a male-only subject among the girls but confirmed the speculation that the level of such endorsement has significant influence on girls' performance in and behaviour related to the subject. These results were discussed and some recommendations made.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1519 –1531 (2008)More Less
The widespread belief that males outperform females has been of interest not only to the social researcher but to the general public as well. It is in this view that the researchers decided to investigate if there is a significance difference in mathematics performance by gender at least at the tertiary level. Data was obtained from the Department of Mathematics and Statistics (UCC). All level 200 students who took mathematics courses constituting of 384 and 416 students for the 2004 / 2005 and 2005 / 2006 academic years respectively were used for the study. The analysis made use of the Hotelling's T2 test of difference of mean vectors and the chi-squared test of independence. The results of the study showed that more males offer mathematics courses more than females. However, the grades obtained did not depend on gender. The research also revealed that there is no significant difference in the performance of mathematics by gender. This and many other interesting findings are presented in this paper.
Author Damilola Taiye AgbalajobiSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1532 –1544 (2008)More Less
The political situation in Nigeria is particularly worrisome due to the domination of the scene by the male gender over their female folks. The low level of women representation at all levels of governance in Nigeria can be traced to the patriarchal orientation of some Nigerian society. Women are seen as the weaker sex, who is psychologically incapable to be involved in partisan politics .The societal system in the country encourages male dominance, subjugates women and makes women as appendages to men. This paper examines various ways by which Nigerian women experience disparity in governance. It also reveals the constraints to gender equality and their participation in the process of governance despite efforts made at the national and international scene to empower them. The paper is descriptive and analytical and it takes a form of content analysis of information gathered through retrieval technique. The paper recommends that women should break loose from the institutions, traditions and values that enslave them mentally and enforce their subjection as the standard of morality of our patriarchal society. It concludes that, to challenge the continuing marginalization of women in Nigeria's process of governance, there is the need to devise appropriate strategies and tactics for eliciting the enthusiasm and concerted efforts of both male and female members of the society for the goal of enhancing the participation of women in governance.
Author Tayo O. GeorgeSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1546 –1558 (2008)More Less
This study set out to investigate domestic employment in career centered families using Covenant University Ota as a case study. The research relied mainly on data from primary sources. A total of One hundred and ten (110) structured questionnaire were administered to elicit data from respondents which comprise both Teaching and Non-teaching staff of the University. However, eighty three (83) useable instruments were returned with the teaching staff having the highest response rate. Some pertinent research questions were raised while the frequency distribution and simple percentage statistical tools were employed to ascertain the results of the study. The major findings include the risks and benefits associated with domestic employment on career centered families. Also glaring from this study, is the fact that women from career centered families are more active in engaging domestic workers largely females of age group (11-20)years to enable them participate in paid employment outside the family. The need to devise coping strategies to ease domestic activities and for career centered families to reach a compromise on domestic activities are recommended to ensure family stability.
Author Adebusuyi Isaac AdeniranSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1559 –1576 (2008)More Less
As obtainable in parts of the globe where instances of discriminatory disposition toward the womenfolk are steadily attenuating due to effects of globalization, and of course, attainment of most of the MDGs' targets, Nigeria is yet to put in place any relevant gender mainstreaming policy. With the MDGs' 2015 target year half gone, fixed gender ascriptions, which were rife in pre-colonial African societies, still loom considerably in contemporary Nigeria. This study therefore aims at understanding the impact of such gender stereotypes on women's educational and socio-economic empowerment. It observes unequal access to educational opportunities as the bedrock of ignorance and powerlessness associated with women's social disempowerment in the country. Essentially, the study adopts the methods of content and secondary analyses as its modes of inquiry, while the entire work is situated on the postulates of 'Weberian Power Analysis'. In all, it is observed that educational equity and women's socio-economic empowerment are necessary consequences of a well-orchestrated gender mainstreaming strategy.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1577 –1590 (2008)More Less
Children begin to engage in pretend play, develop receptive and expressive language, and use mental representation at approximately the same time in their development. The researchers set out to investigate whether boys and girls have different fantasy worlds. The study thus explores gender differences in pretend play in children between the ages of 3 and 5 years, in the pre-school section of a local primary school in Durban, Kwazulu-Natal, regarding gender influences on pretend play. The paper further examines the implications of the findings for child-care and gender role socialization
Author Oludele A. AjaniSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1591 –1602 (2008)More Less
Active participation of local institutions has been recognized to be essential in putting up a broad united front against poverty. While many communities in Nigeria have these local institutions in large numbers, their performance in poverty reduction activities has not been adequate. Adopting the feminist, structural and action perspectives, this study explores the linkages between local institutions and poverty reduction strategies by examining women's evaluation and the profiles of existing local institutions as pivots for development at the community level. The study found that just as politics and social life are affected by pressures for economic efficiency and by economic power, poverty reduction action is embedded in and indeed presupposes social institutions and political decisions. In this sense, the success of poverty reduction strategies is both politically and socially determined. The study concludes that there is the need to empower women constituency groups in order to make them effective tools in the development process. Active participation in the political process is also a factor in this regard.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1603 –1616 (2008)More Less
Women in the world of work in Nigeria have always been described as disadvantaged because they are believed to be discriminated against by unfavourable cultural practices. However, while as elsewhere in the world, women are yet to be at par with male counterparts in economic, social and political spheres, the experiences of Nigerian women are captured in words which are demoralizing. The low morale affects their participation and production in economic spheres, hence anti-development.
On a purely theoretical basis, the objectives of this paper are four-fold. One, to define, trace the origin and intent of discrimination; two, use a different gender lens to capture their experiences through a comparative analysis; three, identify anti-development acts women engage in which are traceable to the common picture of the Nigerian women the available literatures present; and, finally, suggest ways of making work of interest to the women folk and subsequently improve on the economy.
The paper concluded on the need for a re-appraisal of the experiences of working Nigerian women to boost development plans and policies.
Gender differences in academic self-efficacy beliefs and perception of the internal dynamics of the collaborative learning contextAuthor James Adu OpareSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1617 –1631 (2008)More Less
The purpose of this study was to find out whether or not there were differences between male and female students in the way they perceived the conditions under which they studied collaboratively. It was also designed to find out if the collaborative learning context had a differential association with the self-efficacy of males and females. Data were collected from a random sample of 600 students selected from a Ghanaian provincial city. The results of the study indicated that the male students perceived the collaborative learning context more positively than the female students. The males were also more self-efficacious. The whys of the differences are discussed.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1633 –1644 (2008)More Less
Over the past 25 years, the employment rate of mothers with young children has increased drastically. As mothers engage in economic activities, the time spent with children diminishes and this may have social and psychological effect on the children. Using the data obtained from the Boys' Remand Home and Girls' Remand Home in Lagos, this paper examines the impact of mothers' employment on the behaviour of these children. It also examines, among other things, the type of family the children belong to, their mothers' level of education, how they were initiated into bad behaviour and the number of years spent in the home. Results show that the proportion of males who are involved in bad behaviour is greater than that of females. Most of the children are from monogamous home. Maternal education has a significant impact on child's behaviour. Most of the mothers engage in economic activities. Mothers' occupation affects time spent with children. More than three-quarter of the children claim that their mothers do not devote enough time for them. Some of the behaviours the children engage in include stealing, quarreling, being stubborn and associating with bad friends. Mothers' occupation has a significant impact on child's behaviour. Neighbours, friends and foreign movies also exercise some influence on child's behaviour. More than half of the children, however, are of the view that if their mothers had spent much time with them, they would not have engaged in bad behaviour.
Emotional burden of infertility : a controlled study of women managed at a Nigerian teaching hospitalSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1645 –1650 (2008)More Less
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between sociocultural factors and infertility-related stress among a sample of Nigerian women.
The subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a schedule detailing socio-demographic and infertility-related variables were administered on women with infertility and a matched control group.
The rates of significant anxiety symptoms (39.4%) and depressive symptoms (40.4%) among the women with infertility were higher than the corresponding rates of 11.1% and 10.1% in the control group. Their mean anxiety and depression scores were also higher (P < 0.001). Low religiosity, friction with husband's family, polygamous relationship and family pressure on husband predicted symptoms among the women with infertility. Public campaign to improve attitude towards women with infertility is advocated. Therapeutic mental health services are important for these women.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1651 –1672 (2008)More Less
This paper examined the concept of premarital sexual permissiveness among selected University undergraduates in a state owned university in Nigeria, believing that the policy of non-residential status of the University will facilitate premarital sexual activity among the students. Using a total of 400 purposively selected respondents who were administered questionnaire, it was observed that male undergraduates favoured premarital sexual activity than their females counterparts and this was even so among those who are living alone in rented quarters. There were no significant differences among the gender on preference for premarital sexual permissiveness based on levels of study and residential area. The implication of these findings for "war" against HIV / AIDS and the perpetuation of discriminatory attitude towards a particular gender were highlighted.
Author Ismail Bala GarbaSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1673 –1676 (2008)More Less
Author Justice Adetula AlabiSource: Gender and Behaviour 6 (2008)More Less