Gender and Behaviour - Volume 6, Issue 2, 2008
Volume 6, Issue 2, 2008
Author A.A. OlowuSource: Gender and Behaviour 6 (2008)More Less
The production of this Volume Six Number Two, December 2008 ends a very eventful year at our centre. We produced the two issues of our senior journal; Ife PsychologIA (Volume 16 Nos 1 & 2) in March and September as usual. We had a special edition in July on; Xenophobia: A Contemporary Issue in Psychology.
"Womanhood under the magnifying glass : a look at insanity among women in African literature and societyAuthor Remi AkujobiSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1689 –1701 (2008)More Less
Every society has its own challenges and aspirations, but how these are handled makes a lot of difference. The approach to issues, the nature of the issues and the outcome of such issues are very crucial to the development and peace of the society.
Africa as a Third World continent so to say has come a full circle with the good, the bad and the ugly just like any other continent of the world. The difference with Africa's case may be the nature and approach to problems plaguing the continent. Africa is blessed with both natural and human resources - especially with crude oil and other mineral resources and a huge population. The continent is vast in land mass; she is blessed with good climatic condition, vibrant soil suitable for agriculture and a lot more. Yet the continent is under developed. This paper attempts an appraisal of issues that may have accounted for this underdevelopment over the years by looking at the position of mad women in this society and what would have been their contributions, economically, socially and politically to the development of the continent. Using the theory of "otherness" signifying exclusion as propounded by Simone de Beauvior, the paper brings out the plight of these "unwanted" in society and evaluates what they are worth in literary texts and in the society.
Author E.S. IdemudiaSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1702 –1719 (2008)More Less
Objective : The aim of this paper is to describe how male and female African migrants in Germany perceive general life experiences and how this perception affects their wellbeing.
Method : This paper is part of a large cross sectional study of African migrants in Germany. Data was collected from seventy nine (79) African migrants consisting of 58 (73%) males and 21 (26%) females with age in years ranging from 15 to 46 with a mean age of 31.6 (SD) =7.34. Through the snowballing approach participants were reached in the following cities : Bremen, Hamburg, Bonn, Düsseldorf, Köln, Bayreuth, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, and Munich.
Results : Results showed that males experienced more racism and reported more negative life experiences than females. However, females reported more psychological dysfunctions than males on the following measures : anxiety, depression, bizarre mentation, self esteem and negative treatment. There were no significant difference for males and females on health concerns, anger, social discomfort, family problems and work interface.
Conclusion : These results have far reaching implication for mental health potential of migrants and international migration. The results were discussed within the framework of male-female vulnerability and recommendations made in accordance with findings of the study.
Author Tayo O. GeorgeSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1720 –1735 (2008)More Less
Irrespective of the level of development of any people, health is one major yardstick often used to determine actual growth and overall development of such nation state. Considering the importance of good health to productivity and stability of a given nation, this paper critically examines the impact of globalization movement on indigenous and foreign health policies in Nigeria, with particular focus on women. This paper traces the origin and goals of key health policies in Nigeria, specifically the Basic Health Service Scheme (BHSS) and the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). In addition, the activities of World Health Organization & Family Health International, in promoting world health are critically examined. The paper concludes with the impact of globalization on health policies in relation to its impact on women and recommends positive steps for the way forward.
The contributions of contemporary Sokoto women to the Nigerian economy : a case study of Women and Girl Child Centre, Gidan Haki area, Sokoto, Sokoto state, NigeriaAuthor Hussaini Usman MalamiSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1736 –1750 (2008)More Less
This study focused on the Women and Girl Child Centre at Gidan Haki Area, Sokoto which is one of the institutions that helps to facilitate the level and rate of women's contribution to the modern Nigerian economy. The centre provides formal training in basic literacy, post literacy, food and catering, knitting, tailoring, soap and pomade making and basket making to women and girl child. These are all aimed at librating women from the bondage of illiteracy and empowering them with adequate functional skills for their livelihood in order to solve the problem of street and girl child hawking by providing them with income so as to reduce the level of poverty in the state. Nevertheless one of the major center's problems is inadequate funding to run its activities. However, certain recommendations were given that are likely to help in solving the problems.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1751 –1764 (2008)More Less
This study surveyed the challenges that female students on the University of Cape Coast Distance Education Programme face. A 78 - item questionnaire that yielded a reliability correlation coefficient alpha of 0.79 was used to collect data from 895 participants. The findings show that meetings for face-to-face tutorials and end of semester examinations are not convenient to female distance learners. Other challenges noted were, health problems, difficulty combining house management with studies, meeting financial obligations, time management, access to libraries, and feedback. It is, therefore, suggested that gender sensitive issues should be pushed further to enable female distance learners have a fairer deal and, counseling services should assume a centre stage in the whole Distance Education Programme.
Communication, suspicion and stability in marriage : examples from the experiences of married women in two private universities in Ogun state, NigeriaAuthor Sussan Olufunmilola WayasSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1765 –1784 (2008)More Less
This study examined communication, suspicion, and stability in marriage from the standpoint experience of married women in two private universities in Ogun State. Two hundred married female respondents were randomly selected using stratified random sampling technique. Family Assessment Device, a subscale of McMaster Family Functioning Scales and Factors Affecting Marital Stability Questionnaire (FAMSQ) were used to measure communication, suspicion, and stability in marriage.
Findings from the study revealed that marital suspicion determine stability more than communication and the main implications of these findings are that suspicion in marriage and communication affect stability negatively. It was therefore recommended that government should use the mass media to create massive awareness on the need to improve communication in homes and discourage suspicion, recruit professional counsellors, psychologists and social workers to attend to various needs of couples and intending couples.
Author A.S. OkhakhumeSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1785 –1792 (2008)More Less
The "study investigated how women in leadership position are perceived accepted and evaluated by their subordinates. In an attempt to elicit subjects' response, the subordinates attitude questionnaire scale was constructed and was administered to 222 workers consisting of 111 males and 111 females drawn from University of Ibadan, Oyo State Secretariat, Nigerian Bottling Company, National Bank of Nigeria, First Banks Nigeria, Chartered Bank, and Cooperative Bank. The t-test of independent sample was used to analyse the research data. The findings revealed that : (a) Male subordinates have negative attitude toward women leader; (b) Subordinates with higher educational qualification have positive attitude towards women leaders; (c) Young subordinates have negative attitudes toward women in leadership position; (d) Christian subordinates have positive attitude toward women in leadership positions than their Moslem counterparts.
The effect of stereotype on cognitive performance : an experimental study of female cognitive performanceSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1793 –1809 (2008)More Less
This study investigated the effect stereotypes have on cognitive performance. A between-subjects experimental design was utilized in the study. Forty participants from the senior secondary two (SS2) of Chapel Secondary School Ilorin took part in the study, and their cognitive performance in the light of exposure to a stereotype was measured. Four hypotheses were tested. Using the t-test for independent samples, the findings of the experiment showed that males performed better than females on a mathematics test when exposed to stereotype (t = 2.688, df = 18, p < 0.05). The study also found that males who were exposed to stereotype performed better than males who were not exposed to stereotype (t = 2.998, df = 18, p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the performance of females who were exposed to stereotype and those who were not (t = 2.740, df = 18, p > 0.05). Stereotypes have been identified to affect the way people see things and the way they interpret certain behaviours of other individuals or groups. Therefore understanding the nature of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination is the first step in combating these practices.
Author Daniela Acquadro MaranSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1809 –1826 (2008)More Less
The investigation sought the opinion of members of Orchestra Sinfonica Nazionale della RAI on a performance directed by a woman. The assumption was that not being used to be directed by a woman would affect their opinion on the individual's ability and on all women conductors, i.e. if few women are invited to be guest conductors, it must mean that there are few women conductors who are good enough. A survey of 58 musicians interviewed using Alceste 4.6 statistical program revealed that musicians have stereotypes as regards women conductors and their ability to lead an orchestra. Such stereotypes are due to the small number of women who have been conducting. However, findings indicate that orchestras everywhere have much to gain from women's participation in terms of both visibility and opportunities to attract funding and sponsorships. Implications of these findings for orchestra management strategy and future investigation are also discussed.
Prevalence and patterns of gender violence : major variables in the exposure to HIV / AIDS among women in NigeriaAuthor Olujide Adedapo AdekeyeSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1827 –1840 (2008)More Less
This study was carried out among 183 women in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. The study was designed to examine prevalence and patterns of gender violence and its relationship with sexually transmitted infections, including HIV / AIDS among women. Four research questions and two hypotheses were raised. Frequency counts and percentages, Pearson's r and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results show that cultural belief, traditional values and superstitions were responsible for acts of violence against women in Nigeria. Others are non-assertiveness and fear of marriage breakup. The study revealed that the most prevalent form of violence against women is physical (78%), closely followed by sexual violence (42%). Polygyny (78%) and cultural belief, traditional values and superstitions (75%) were responsible for the exposure of women to HIV / AIDS in Nigeria. The first hypothesis which states that there will be a significant difference in the perception of gender violence based on type of occupation was accepted and the second which states that there is a significant relationship between prevalence of gender violence and exposure to HIV / AIDS was also accepted. To curb the incidence of gender violence, the study highlighted the need for cultural reorientation, socialization, assertiveness training and legislation. The position of this paper is that violence in all its ramifications is unacceptable, that no Nigerian woman deserves to be physically battered, deprived of sex (as punishment), forced into coitus, or made to suffer psychologically.
Author Luckson Muganyizi KainoSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1841 –1857 (2008)More Less
Different educational efforts have been employed to minimize or eliminate gender differences by using various learning means. One of these efforts has been the use of computers in classrooms instruction because of the nature of qualities these facilities possess. This article analyzes students' gender attitudes towards learning by using computers in Botswana junior and senior secondary schools. Attitudinal variables considered are usefulness and enjoyment of using computers in learning. The findings showed that gender differences existed in the variables used when this facility was used. Girls and boys differed on the usefulness of using computers in learning and girls had less enjoyment in learning using computers than boys. While the use of computers did not meet the expectations in the variables studied, it is concluded that (i) the nature of computer studies curricula offered at both junior and senior secondary schools levels, and the way the subject was taught could have an impact on students' views on usefulness and enjoyment of learning using computers, and (ii) further efforts should be encouraged to explore the use computers in studying the gender gap.
Dual protection, contraceptive use and HIV risk among a sample of South African male and female studentsSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1858 –1869 (2008)More Less
The aim of this study was to investigate dual protection, contraceptive use and HIV risk in a sample of South African male and female university students. The final sample included only participants who reported to ever have had sexual intercourse (n = 386, 94.6% of the 408 surveyed; 190 men, 49.2% and 196 women, 50.8%; median age 22years). Results indicate that 71% were protected from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections the last time they had sexual intercourse, 8.8% using dual methods and 61.8% using a condom alone; 11.4% were protected from pregnancy only through the use of a non-barrier contraceptive, while 21% of the participants used no method at all. In multivariate analysis, higher education of the father, being married or in a steady relationship, multiple (casual and steady) sex partnership, having had a sexually transmitted infection, pregnancy risk experienced and higher HIV risk perception were predictors of dual protection (condom use alone or with non-barrier methods). Dual method use is low in this population and the use of contraceptive methods that offer protection against pregnancy and STIs / HIV is encouraged.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1870 –1883 (2008)More Less
The study examined the roles of NGOs (Farmers Development Union; FADU and Community Women and Development - Nigeria; COWAD) in economic empowerment of rural women in Ibadanland, Nigeria. It determined the factors militating against women economic empowerment, assessed the strategies used by the NGOs and as well identified the constraints facing the NGOs in the study area. Primary data were collected through questionnaire; one hundred and ninety questionnaires were administered in randomly selected twenty-six (26) villages in four local government areas of Ibadanland. Secondary data were collected through the official documents of the NGOs. Collected data were analyzed with descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution and percentages. The study revealed that lack of finance accounted for 20.76% of the total factors militating against women economic empowerment in the study area. Others are lack of access to credit facility (19.87%); cultural practices (19.63%), lack of access to farmland (18.42%) in accessibility to information (17.74%); and uncooperative attitude of their husbands (3.58%).
Strategies such as support services (18.28%); awareness campaign (17.37%); training programme (16.67%); soft loan (16.27%); and capacity building (15.37%) were used by NGOs to empower the rural women in the study area. However, NGOs encountered problems such as insufficient funds (20.2%); high rate of defaults (18.1%); illiteracy (17.2%); misapplication of loans on social functions (15.3%); irregularity in meeting attendance (15.1%) and poor roads (14.1%) in the study area. Notwithstanding, the strategies of the NGOs have been effective in the economic empowerment of rural women in the study area.
Author Thomas BisikaSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1884 –1896 (2008)More Less
Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the practice. Men abuse women through battery, use of abusive language, not providing some requirements and overworking them. Women abuse men by not giving them food and engaging in extra marital affairs. The study concluded that there are cultural practices and beliefs that perpetuate gender-based violence and these include "chiongo"-dowry, polygamy, "the notion of household head", male mobility, forced marriage and not having sex with a woman when she is menstruating and during post-partum abstinence which can force a man to have extra-marital sex.
Vandals or victims? Poverty, risk perception and vulnerability of women to oil pipeline disasters in NigeriaAuthor Freedom C. OnuohaSource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1897 –1924 (2008)More Less
Since the Jesse oil pipeline fire disaster in October 1998 in Delta State, oil pipeline fire disasters have become a recurrent source of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Undoubtedly, the past decade has witnessed increasing incidences of pipeline vandalization with concomitant cascading explosions that pose serious threats to human security in Nigeria. One social category that is hardest hit by oil pipeline disasters in Nigeria are women. This paper examines both the sources of risks of oil pipeline disasters and the factors that underlie risk perception by, and the vulnerability of, women to pipeline disasters. It argues that the vulnerability of women to oil pipeline disasters in Nigeria is mediated through complex processes involving geographical, economic, social, and political factors that exposes them to risks as well as greatly influence their perception and interpretation of risk situations. The article concludes with a range of policy recommendations suggested by the analysis.
Pathways to sex workers' social rehabilitation and assessment of rehabilitation approaches in Nigeria : evidence from a qualitative studySource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1925 –1959 (2008)More Less
This article asks three questions : What are the characteristics of the pathways to the sex workers social rehabilitation programmes? How are the sex workers managed in these rehabilitation centres? Which of the social rehabilitation approaches is most effective? Answers to these broad questions helped to unveil the treatment of the victims of sex trafficking their 'rescue' from traffickers. Using qualitative techniques, data were collected from victims of sex trafficking and officials of rehabilitation centres in Edo and Lagos states of Nigeria. The pathways to social rehabilitation were found to be characterized with activities that negate the human rights of the victims. A comparative analysis of the relative effectiveness of the various rehabilitation options showed that faith-based rehabilitation milieu and approach was the most effective place of rehabilitation. However, the study argues for a fusion of the faith-based and social welfare approaches for the most effective outcome.
Gender differences in the anticipation of difficulties in finding employment among university students : a Botswana studySource: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1960 –1981 (2008)More Less
A study investigated gender differences in the anticipation of difficulties in finding employment among 232 final-year undergraduate students at the University of Botswana. Compared to their male counterparts, female students worried significantly more that they might not find a job (p = 0.005) and that this might cause other problems in their life (p = 0.017). Male students were more likely to believe that they did not have to worry about finding a job while still at university (p = 0.003). Compared to male students, females were more likely to discuss their career plans with their friends (p = 0.001) and parents (p = 0.018). Both male and female students displayed a strong sense of external locus of control and causal attribution. They believed that "connections" with the "right people" would help them in getting a job. They blamed others, especially government, in case they could not get employment. The findings are discussed with regard to possible effects on students' job-searching behaviours.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 1982 –2007 (2008)More Less
Though women are the major consumers of housing services, their perception and actual behaviour with respect to their involvement in housing development have been invisible in existing studies. Therefore, the study investigate variations in the general perception of women's involvement, women's level of awareness and actual involvement in housing development in Ibadan with emphasis on six critical aspects of housing development namely : land acquisition and preparation, housing design and planning, housing finance, actual construction of the building, production / procurement of building materials, and housing maintenance. Also examined are women's views on the responsibility for households housing provision and perception on jobs of building activities. The study uses primary data which were obtained through a cross-sectional survey of 721 households systematically carried out in Ibadan, Nigeria. Statistical techniques such as frequencies, percentages, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Least Significance Difference (LSD) Post Hoc test were used to analyze the data. The result of the analysis shows that there is, generally, low involvement of women in housing development. The general perception of women is that housing provisions are the responsibilities of male heads of households. Building activities are viewed more as men's job. Significant intra-urban variation does not exist in the perception, awareness and in the actual involvement of women in each of the critical aspects of housing development. However, among each of these critical aspects women are found to be more involved in housing maintenance activities. The study suggests that women's empowerment in housing delivery will be greatly enhanced through a reorientation of women's mindset about responsibility for housing provision.
Source: Gender and Behaviour 6, pp 2008 –2019 (2008)More Less
This study examined the adjustment strategies of retirees in South West Nigeria. The target population for the study was all retirees in South West Nigeria. The sample consisted of 725 respondents selected from the six states in the South West geo-political zone of the country using the multi-stage sampling technique. Adapted Adjustment Strategies Scale (ASS) was used to collect data for the study. Content validity of the instrument was subjected to test-retest reliability technique using the Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient formula. The validity yielded a coefficient of 0.73. Three research hypotheses were generated and tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Data collected were analyzed using t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The result revealed that there was no significant difference among retirees in South West Nigeria in their coping strategies on the basis of age and religion but there was a significant difference on the basis of gender. The findings of this study have implications for psychologists, guidance counsellors and educationists alike. It was therefore recommended that psychologists and guidance counsellors through their various professional associations should sensitize the government on the need for retirement education for both pre-retirees and retirees in the country.