HTS : Theological Studies - Volume 69, Issue 1, 2013
Volume 69, Issue 1, 2013
Jotas en tittels het betekenis - die krities-eksegetiese en teologiese bydrae van Andries Breytenbach as Bybelvertaler : original researchAuthor Ananda B. Geyser-FoucheSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –6 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1982More Less
Jots and tittles have meaning : the critical exegetical and theological contribution of Andries Breytenbach as Bible translator.
The article is a reworked version of a paper presented at a commemoration ceremony in honour of the retired Reformed exegetes of the Department of Old Testament Studies of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria who have contributed immensely to translation projects of the South African Bible Society. In this article, the author focuses on the theological and exegetical relevance of Professor A.P.B. Breytenbach. The article shows Breytenbach's critical presuppositions in hermeneutics, especially his contribution towards the understanding of diversity in the message of the Old Testament and the 'second naiveté' which constitutes a critical lens through which the Old Testament should be interpreted by the Christian faith community.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –11 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1911More Less
The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) is regarded by many in Protestant circles as one of the most significant processes in ecumenical church history during the 20th century. At the time hopes were high that closer cooperation was a reality to be embraced and achieved. Concurrently, a younger generation of Roman Catholic theologians began to make their mark on the ecumenical theological scene. Their work has provided a bridge between the two ecclesiastical traditions, notwithstanding the subsequent negative response of the Roman church hierarchy. Despite important advances, recent pontificates have destroyed much of the enthusiasm and commitment to unity. This article examines the disjuncture in views regarding the outcomes of the Council and points of contact with Protestant thinking.
Author Annette PotgieterSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –5 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1378More Less
Psalm 26 is interpreted by the majority of scholars as a cultic psalm. This has limited research on Psalm 26. There are clear traces of sapiential influence in Psalm 26 concerning its intricately well-thought concentric structure as well as various wisdom connections. This study will however focus on the structure as well as on the core wisdom theme of walking the way of Yahweh. This opens up interpretation possibilities for Psalm 26 and it also indicates that Psalm 26 is a literary creation belonging to the Persian Period.
'No small counsel about self-control' : Enkrateia and the virtuous body as missional performance in 2 Clement : original researchAuthor Chris L. De WetSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –10 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1340More Less
The question this article addresses is how the encratic, virtuous body in 2 Clement 'speaks itself' as a missional performance. It is in essence concerned with the discourses of corporeal virtuosity in 2 Clement. Firstly, the agon motif (2 Clem 7:1-6; 20:1-4) is discussed since it forms the basis metaphor for the understanding of ancient virtue-formation. Secondly, 2 Clement's encratic technologies of soul and flesh as an extension and overamplification, respectively, of the body are examined (2 Clem 9:1-11). In the third instance, the proliferation of visible technologies of the body in 2 Clement are brought into perspective with special emphasis on these technologies as strategies of andromorphism, a crucial element in the understanding of virtue in antiquity (2 Clem 12:1-6). Fourthly, 2 Clement also links concepts of holiness and the pneumatic dimension of spirituality in its argumentation (2 Clem 14:1-5). This needs to be understood in the light of corporeal virtuosity. Finally, the concepts of suffering (2 Clem 19:3-4), martyrdom (2 Clem 5:1-7) and the apocalyptic anti-spectacle (2 Clem 17:1-7) are central in 2 Clement's formulations of the missional performance and are therefore clarified. The intersection of these discourses is where the virtuous body in 2 Clement speaks itself as a missional performance. The study concludes by looking at the implications of the findings for understanding early Christian missionality.
When patrons are patrons : a social-scientific and realistic reading of the parable of the Feast (Lk 14:16b-23) : original researchSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –14 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1375More Less
This article presents a social-scientific and realistic interpretation of the parable of the Feast. The characteristics of a pre-industrial city are used to determine the realism of the parable. The social-scientific interpretation of the parable considers meals as ceremonies. The cultural values embedded in meals, namely honour and shame, patronage, reciprocity and purity, receive attention. The social dynamics of invitations in the 1st-century Mediterranean world is used as a lens to understand the invitations as an honour challenge, and the social game of gossip is used to obtain an understanding of the excuses in the parable. The conclusion reached is that the parable turns the world in which it is told upside down. As such, the parable has something to say about the injustices that are a part of the society we live in.
A scientific defence of religion and the religious accommodation of science? Contextual challenges and paradoxes : original researchAuthor Cornel W. Du ToitSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –9 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1293More Less
Few human phenomena in our time are as controversial or confusing as religion. People seem to live in two worlds: a mythical and a scientific one. They talk about either of these worlds in isolation but cannot reconcile the underlying presuppositions. Believers are less naïve than the 'new atheists' suppose, and atheists do not come without their quota of superstition and belief. Midway between the two opposites is a burgeoning, secular new spirituality that has assumed many forms in recent years. The groups are often marked by some form of naturalism, which try to accommodate science. The premise in this article is that religion, being a product of normal evolutionary processes, is 'natural'. This implies that cultural evolution is ongoing and supports the thesis that religion (in this case Western Christianity) is making a major transition. As for science, I briefly outline the role of metaphysics. That is because science often has to invoke metaphysical constructs to make sense of the bigger picture. Following Aristotle, the metaphysical dimension of science is a blank page which every era fills with its own interpretation. In that sense, it is 'more than' just empiricism, verifiability, and it is accompanied by some metaphysical baggage. At this metaphysical level, the traditional dominance of causality makes way for emergence.
Karl Barth's understanding of Christian baptism as a basis for a conversation on the praxis of sacraments in the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa : original researchAuthor Rothney S. TshakaSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –8 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1330More Less
This article is an initial attempt to bring the subject of baptism and to a lesser extent infant baptism in particular, as demonstrated in Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics, into a conversation with the practice of this phenomenon in African Reformed churches in South Africa, specifically the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA). Whilst the Roman Catholic and Reformed traditions regarding the sacraments differ significantly in the understanding of this subject, this article will examine Barth's understanding of baptism. This is done by critically examining key themes in his Church Dogmatics. The praxis of the sacraments and especially that of baptism continue to be a praxis that is highly venerated in African Reformed theological circles. This is so because it is believed that symbolism continues to occupy centre stage in African Reformed churches. In a sense therefore it seems that the African Reformed Christian leans more towards a Roman Catholic understanding of this sacrament. Is that perhaps true? Essentially this conversation will explore the relationship of faith to baptism and how this impacts on infant baptism for instance.
Author Kirk J. FranklinSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –8 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1332More Less
Complex questions have arisen about how Christian mission agencies function within a globalised context. The changing context has impacted on how the missio Dei has been worked out within these agencies and this has had implications of a theological and missiological nature in particular as to how the agencies have interacted with the church worldwide. This has lead to new paradigms of how mission is conceptualised. The growth of the church worldwide in newer soil has forced mission agencies such as the Wycliffe Global Alliance (WGA) to re-evaluate their place in the world. It has been assumed that as resources have decreased from parts of the world where the WGA has had its traditional roots, there are missiological factors in determining how this impacts on the WGA. There are many missiological implications for the WGA that come from influences in church history on the importance of the translatability of the gospel especially in the context of Bible translation. These have impacted the WGA's understanding of itself and in particular of how it has interpreted and reinterpreted its Vision 2025. When the missio Dei converges with outcomes of globalisation there are numerous implications for an agency such as the WGA. Consequently, the article concludes that none of these matters can be ignored. Instead they must be explored and lessons learnt from them that can be passed along to others in similar situations.
Kerklike tradisie en kultuur as bydraende faktore in die diens aan die Koninkryk - die lewe en werk van dominee Kálmán Papp II (geb. 1924) : original researchAuthor Kalman D. PappSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –8 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1339More Less
Church tradition and culture as contributory factors in service to the Kingdom. This study describes how reverend Kálmán Papp (1924- ) was able to leave his land of origin behind under difficult, unasked-for and compelling circumstances and embrace a new future in a far-off and unknown country. This follows from his spontaneous responding and acting positively to the effects of cultural interaction and the common denominational factor of the Reformed Church ever present. The study argues in its methodology that it is an oversimplification and a mistake to seek truth by avoiding, underestimating or eliminating the necessary outcome of cultural interaction and church tradition in the choices we make (even theologically) and experiences we have of life. This is the true life story of a church minister who finds his destiny and becomes himself a minister in the service of God's Kingdom, through faith's challenges and encounters with the theologies and cultures of his embracing worlds.
The parable of the shrewd manager (Lk 16:1-8) : a biography of Jesus and a lesson on mercy : original researchAuthor Dieter H. ReinstorfSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –7 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1943More Less
Many scholars have regarded the parable of the shrewd manager (Lk 16:1â??8) as the most puzzling of all parables as Jesus seems to use the unrighteous actions of a dishonest (worldly) manager as a model for emulation by others. The unease associated with this understanding was managed in part by focusing almost exclusively on the 'shrewdness' of the dishonest manager. In this interpretation, it is not his unjust behaviour that is to be imitated but his wise and intelligent actions. This interpretation has led to a divergence of applications regarding the 'property' that was entrusted to him. The author, however, argues that, in the context of the historical Jesus, the entrusted property in the parable references first and foremost the Torah entrusted to God's people and that the manager mirrors the life of Jesus, who was 'accused' by the religious leaders of being unjust. Despite being threatened, he continued unabatedly to scatter God's mercy, epitomised by the reduction of debt and symbolising the dawning of God's Kingdom. The manager is therefore not a negative figure but a positive (diaphorical) example of what it means to be a faithful manager of God in the light of adversary and opposition.
Adolescent male orphans affected by HIV and AIDS, poverty and fatherlessness : a story of marginalisation? : original researchAuthor Juanita MeyerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –10 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1932More Less
This article explores the experiences of fatherless adolescent males affected by HIV, AIDS and poverty, in order to investigate how these experiences influence the creation of their alternative, future narratives and if these experiences result in narratives that speak of marginalisation or instead, will speak of survival. Research methods from the qualitative case study research design are employed. The theoretical point of departure is a post-foundational practical theology and narrative therapy. The specific focus is on issues of marginalisation and to listen to the narratives within their contexts. The article explores and deconstructs the dominant discourses engrained within the larger socio-economic and cultural context and questions whether these narratives should be viewed as a story of marginalisation. The article concludes that it is not a story of marginalisation, but rather a story of survival, a story of hope.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –8 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1915More Less
The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) is regarded as one of the most significant processes in the ecumenical church history of the 20th century. At that time, a younger generation of Roman Catholic theologians began to make their mark in the church and within the ecumenical theological scene. Their work provided an ecumenical bridge between the Reforming and the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical traditions, notwithstanding the subsequent negative response of the Roman church hierarchy. Despite important advances, recent pontificates significantly altered the theological landscape and undermined much of the enthusiasm and commitment to unity. Roman Catholic theological dissent provided common ground for theological reflection. Those regarded as the 'enemy within' have become respected colleagues in the search for truth in global ecclesiastical perspective. This article will use the distinction between the history and the narratives of Vatican II.
Om saam te weet en dan te luister : Edward Schillebeeckx se begrip Deus Humanissimus as die kerk se gewete : original researchAuthor Tania Van WykSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –10 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1983More Less
To know communally first and then to listen: Edward Schillebeeckx's notion Deus Humanissimus as the conscience of the church.
In this article the notion of the conscience of the church is investigated. By deconstructing the apostle Paul's notion of conscience and then exploring the connection he makes between knowledge and conscience, the role of critical voices of theologians within the church is examined, with special reference to the life and theology of Edward Schillebeeckx. His notion of Deus Humanissimus - the human face of God that becomes visible in Jesus Christ - is explored as the conscience of the church, with special reference to the inclusivity of the church. The Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NRCA) is then described as an example of a church where knowledge and conscience presently do not correlate, resulting in the persistence of the NRCA's self-description as an ethnic 'people's' church, as it struggles on its journey to inclusivity. It is suggested that Schillebeeckx's notion of Deus Humanissimus as the conscience of the NRCA can help this church to write a new narrative.
An investigation into the ancient Egyptian cultural influences on the Yorubas of Nigeria : original researchAuthor Jock M. AgaiSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –9 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1919More Less
There are many cultural practices that connect ancient Egyptians to the Yorubas and the new interpretation of the Oduduwa legend suggests that the Yorubas have originated or are influenced mainly by the Egyptians. The attestation of Egypt as the main influencer of the Yoruba culture made Egypt significant in the study of the history of the Yoruba people. Some writers are beginning to think that the ancient Egyptians were responsible for introducing and spreading many cultures amongst the Yorubas. As more Yorubas are tracing their origins and the origins of their culture to ancient Egypt, this research investigates whether the Egyptians were the originators and the main spreaders of the afterlife culture in Yorubaland.
A comparison between James and Philodemus on moral exhortation, communal confession and correctio fraterna : original researchAuthor Jacobus KokSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –8 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1927More Less
In this article, James 5:13-20 is investigated. This section deals with the confession of sins in the community of faith and the subsequent healing that will result. James will be compared to Philodemus, a philosopher who comes from Galilee, just like James. It is not argued that James was influenced by Philodemus but that a comparison between the two might open up fresh perspectives for the interpretation of James 5:13-20. This will especially become clear when the themes of moral exhortation, community health, communal confession and the role of the psychagogue are discussed.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –10 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1924More Less
Does modern anthropology pose a problem to the Christian faith?
Contemporary scientific anthropology proposes a naturalistic conception of human personhood because of humankind's place somewhere in the larger evolutionary process of life. Some authors use the theory of biological evolution to explain phenomena in other areas as well, and due to its success suggest it has universal application in cultural and religious studies too, as if it were a theory of everything. Darwin's idea of a common origin of all life undermined a supposed superiority of humankind. It signalled the end of an Aristotelian metaphysical notion of classification and constituted a real blow for classical individualistic anthropology. Dawkins explains religion in terms of empirical immanent biological processes in the human brain. He views religious ideas as 'memes' that act like an infectious virus in mental processes. His hypothesis seems to be a relapse into the old Aristotelian pattern. Michael Persinger interprets religion as an internal physiological state of an individual brain and reduces the language of mental concepts to physiological states of a material brain. Persinger's, and also Dennett's, materialistic view presupposes a God's Eye Point of View as an Archimedian perspective outside the world. If a God exists, the neurologists Newberg and d'Aquili argue that he needs a point of contact within our brain: the God spot. Sociobiologists Edward Wilson and David Wilson consider religion a form of group adaptation, because cooperating individuals show the primary benefits of cooperation and altruistic behaviour, just as social insects. Religion is an evolutionary support of altruistic instincts and creates a social infrastructure to benefit a cooperative society. However, social insects merely act on their instincts whereas human beings can act intentionally even against their primary instincts, because of motives for altruist practices inspired, for example, by the narratives and concepts of a Christian tradition. The communion of saints does not take place merely because of a social instinct, but because of the shared motive of the community as a whole, that is, the body of Christ, which acts altruistically irrespective of persons, including outsiders!
Getting bad publicity and staying in power : Leviticus 10 and possible priestly power struggles : original researchAuthor Esias E. MeyerSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –7 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1990More Less
The story of the death of Nadab and Abihu in Leviticus 10 has always been a difficult text to understand. Recently it has been used in debates about possible power struggles between Aaronides and Zadokites in post-exilic Yehud. The article critically explores the work of three European scholars, namely Achenbach, Nihan and Otto on this issue. Initially most of the traditional questions asked by scholars are addressed such as what the 'strange fire' was, and what exactly Nadab and Abihu did wrong. The focus of the article then moves to whether Leviticus 10 reflects badly on certain priestly groups.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –12 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1935More Less
This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor's dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the bio-psychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures). They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon 'rape'; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.
Creation and covenant in a via media position : the example of J.J.P. Valeton Jr : original researchAuthor Bob BeckingSource: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –6 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.1989More Less
The year 2012 marked the centenary of the death of the Utrecht Old Testament scholar J.J.P. Valeton Jr (1848-1912). He was a representative of the 'via media' approach of Dutch theology, which aimed at joining critical scholarship and piety, by avoiding the pitfalls of modernism as well as orthodoxy. Valeton accepted the critical analysis of Graf, Kuenen, and Wellhausen, but meanwhile remained a pious person. This article will discuss Valeton's contributions to critical scholarship of Genesis 1-3 as well as his profound ideas on 'covenant' as an expression of 'friendship'. Loader's distinction between 'knowledge open to faith' and 'knowledge open for scientific approach' is very helpful in understanding the works and ideas of Valeton.
Source: HTS : Theological Studies 69, pp 1 –13 (2013) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v69i1.2003More Less
In this contribution the relationship between mission, identity and ethics in Mark was investigated by means of a post-colonial and social-scientific reading, with a focus on patronage as a practice that constituted the main bond of human society in the 1st-century Mediterranean world. Mark's narrative world is a world of three kingdoms (the kingdoms of Rome, the Temple elite and God). Each of these kingdoms has its own gospel, claims the favour of God or the gods, has its own patron, and all three have a mission with a concomitant ethics. Two of these gospels create a world of outsiders (that of Rome and the Temple), and one a world of insiders (the kingdom of God proclaimed and enacted by the Markan Jesus). According to Mark, the kingdom of God is the only kingdom where peace and justice are abundantly available to all, because its patron, Jesus, is the true Son of God, and not Caesar. Being part of this kingdom entails standing up for justice and showing compassion towards outsiders created by the 'gospels' of Rome and the Temple elite.