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n Historia - The production of literature on the "Red Peril" and "Total Onslaught" in twentieth-century South Africa

Volume 49, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 0018-229X
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Abstract

<b>Literatuurproduksie oor die "Rooi Gevaar" en die "Totale Aanslag" in Twintigste-eeuse Suid-Afrika</b> <br>Gedurende 'n groot gedeelte van die twintigste eeu is Suid-Afrikaners, en Afrikaners in die besonder, gefassineer deur die historiese verskynsel van kommunisme, wat. dikwels as 'n "bedreiging" of "gevaar" beskou is. Die algemene publiek se bewuswording van kommunisme is gestimuleer deur die sogenaamde "Rooi Opstand" van 1922 aan die Witwatersrand, wat in die nadraai van die Bolsjewistiese Rewolusie van 1917 in Rusland gevolg het. In die 1930's en die 1940's is die kommunistiese "Rooi Gevaar" gelykgestel aan die "Swart Gevaar", toe kommuniste uitgebeeld is as voorstanders van rassegelykheid en internasionalisme. Die "Rooi Gevaar" is ook gelyk gestel aan die "Joodse Gevaar", aangesien talle kommunistiese vakbondleiers van Joodse afkoms met Afrikanerkultuurleiers om die steun van die Afrikanerwerkersklas meegeding het. Van die 1930's tot die 1980's het Afrikanerkerke ywerig meegedoen aan die toenemende produksie van antikommunistiese retoriek. Die uitgesproke ateïsme van kommunisme is as "dodelike bedreiging" vir die Christendom in Suid-Afrika beskou. Van die 1950's af het die "Rooi Gevaar" literatuurproduksie 'n beheptheid met 'n vermeende Sowjet en Rooi Chinese "aanslag" op Suid-Afrika gereflekteer. Met die totstandkoming van die Instituut vir die Studie van Marxisme aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch in 1980, het kommunisme as historiese faktor ook formele akademiese aandag begin geniet. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die fases en tendense van die literatuurproduksie oor die "Rooi Gevaar" en "Totale Aanslag" in Suid-Afrika in die twintigste eeu.

For much of the twentieth century South Africans, and Afrikaners in particular, were fascinated by the historical phenomenon of communism, which was often perceived as a "threat" or "peril". The general public's awareness of communism was stimulated by the so-called "Red Revolt" on the Witwatersrand in 1922, which followed in the wake of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. In the 1930s and 1940s, the communist "Red Peril" was equated with the "Black Peril", when communists were depicted as proponents of racial equality and internationalism. The "Red Peril" was also equated with the "Jewish Peril" as many communist trade union leaders of Jewish origin vied with Afrikaner cultural entrepreneurs to gain the support of the Afrikaner working class. From the 1930s to the 1980s, Afrikaner churches contributed vigorously to the increasing production of anti-communist rhetoric. The avowed atheism of communism was perceived as a "deadly threat" to Christianity in South Africa. From the 1950s onwards, production of literature on the "Red Peril" reflected a preoccupation with a presumed Soviet and Red Chinese "onslaught" against South Africa. With the establishment of the Institute for the Study of Marxism at the University of Stellenbosch in 1980, communism as a historical factor also drew serious academic interest. This article investigates the phases in the production of literature on the "Red Peril" and "Total Onslaught" in twentieth-century South Africa.

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/content/hist/49/2/EJC38163
2004-11-01
2016-12-09

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