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- IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal
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- Volume 21, Issue 3, 2013
IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal - Volume 21, Issue 3, 2013
Volumes & issues
Volume 21, Issue 3, 2013
Proselytizing techniques and inoculation against brainwashing : lessons for psychotherapy : ethical issues in clinical psychologySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 157 –161 (2013)More Less
Proselytization is the activity of inducing someone to convert to ones faith. In same vein, a proselyte is seen as a person who has been converted from one opinion, faith, beliefs, religion or party to another. Though, it has its origin from historical perspective of a Gentile who was considering conversion to Judaism. In modern times, there have been several attempts to covert people to a different point of view and beliefs through brainwashing. In Nigeria, the politicians and military have used psychic duress to alter people political or moral convictions to convert "settle" them. For the purpose of this paper, proselytizing techniques is conceptualized as the management and direction of human beings by a clever use of their desires, wishes, beliefs, value and attitudes in order to control and manipulate them for scientific, social, religious and political ends. Therefore, this paper examines proselytizing technique and the need to develop inoculation against brainwashing. The paper concluded that psychotherapy should not be created to persuade or proselytize people but rather it can intervene without being divisive, giving priority to sole preserve of psychotherapy which addresses the soul without capturing it and lastly people should be allowed their own destiny accordable to their own creative insights in life.
Author 'Bunmi BuhariSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 162 –168 (2013)More Less
The relationship that should exist between a therapist and his client is a relationship of trust. It should be a relationship that focuses on meeting the health care needs of the client. This relationship should serve as a means through which the therapist assists his client to resolve some difficulties that they are experiencing. One challenge that therapist however face as they get to know their clients intimately in the course of therapy is how to maintain proper boundaries. This is because the relationship often involves regular contact over time with client sharing their feelings with the therapist. These feelings often times have the potential to evoke actions that may be clinically inappropriate and unethical. These inappropriate actions when they occur are damaging to both the professional and the client. Professional boundaries are therefore intended to set limits and clearly define a safe, therapeutic connection between therapist and client. As professionals, it is up to the therapist to be aware of appropriate professional behaviors so that these boundaries are not violated. This paper is thus aimed at reminding us about the boundaries within therapeutic relations, how to maintain them during therapy and what to do when they occur.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 169 –173 (2013)More Less
Counselling and psychotherapy are two fields that are often viewed to be the same and used interchangeably. The different definitions on both counselling and psychotherapy are evidences to this fact. Efforts will be made in this paper to highlight the different definitions, show the differences and similarities between the two. Examine briefly the various types and approaches of counselling and psychotherapy and their historical background.
Motivational interview : evidence based strategy in the treatment of alcohol and drug addiction : ethical issues in clinical psychologyAuthor Ann Ukachi MadukweSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 174 –196 (2013)More Less
What is drug addiction?
To answer above question, considerations are given to what is meant by drugs and when addiction could be said to have taken place. The drugs of concern here are psychoactive drugs.
Psychoactive drugs are substances that when ingested interact with the CNS to affect the individual's thoughts, feelings and actions. They affect one's mental process and behavior, perception of reality, level of alertness, response time and perception of the world. WHO 1998 defined Psychoactive drugs as "any chemical substance which, when taken into the body, alters its function physically and/or psychologically". Ikpeme (2010) specifically described it as any substance people consider to be a drug, with the understanding that this will change from culture to culture and from time to time. This definition supposes that psychoactive drugs vary from place to place and from time - do you agree? Does the fact that opium has transformed into a household name in china change its effect on their people who use it and get hooked on it? Or had our acceptance and celebration of alcohol in anyway negate its powerful and damaging effect on our local population especially the youths? However, culture must be considered in order to understand people's affiliation to a particular drug and to achieve effective treatment.
Workplace counselling : implications for enhanced productivity : ethical issues in clinical psychologySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 197 –210 (2013)More Less
Workplace counseling is the provision of brief psychological therapy for employees of organizations. Counselling service in most organizations in Nigeria has not received adequate attention. The reason for this is not unconnected with the low level of acceptance of counseling service generally in the country.
This paper lucidity attempts a conceptual review of counseling, the difference between counseling and psychotherapy and a review of the five major systems or schools that have exerted the greatest influence on current thinking regarding counseling. It further presents a model of workplace counseling and concludes that increase in work related trauma and stress, accidents at the workplace, harassment and bullying, absenteeism, low productivity/poor performance and labour turnover will be nipped in the bud if counseling service is provided at the workplace.
Effect of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) on federal teachers' attitudes towards retirement : ethical issues in clinical psychologySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 211 –222 (2013)More Less
The research work was an experimental study, which investigated the effects of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT) on Federal teachers' attitude towards retirement in Lagos State, Nigeria. Two hundred teachers from two Federal Government owned secondary schools in Lagos State were pre-tested using the "Attitude Towards Retirement Inventory" (ATRI) developed by the researcher. One hundred and twenty-five respondents scored negatively (i.e below 100 points) on the ATRI. Out of this number, only ninety-five returned the "Workers Consent Form" (WCF). Fifty out of the 95 consenters were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. The 50 participants were then randomly assigned to two groups of 25 each; REBT (Group A) and the Control Group (Group B). At the end of the treatment which lasted for five weeks, the participants were post-tested using ATRI. Data collected were analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) as the post-hoc test. The results revealed that REBT was effective in changing the attitude towards retirement of federal teachers in Lagos State from negative to positive. The results also showed that gender and length of service have no influence on the treatment package of REBT on the participants.
Adolescents-parent relationships as perceived by younger and older adolescents : child & adolescent therapy and e-therapyAuthor Agatha OgwoSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 224 –229 (2013)More Less
This study examined the perception of adolescent-parent relationship by older and younger adolescents. It was hypothesised that there will be no significant difference in the perception of adolescent-parent relationship among older and younger adolescents. 320 adolescents drawn from both junior and senior secondary schools in Rivers state of Nigeria were used as participants for this study. There ages were between 11 years and 18 years. Adolescents whose ages fall between 11 and 13 years were used as representative sample for younger adolescents while those who fall within the ages of 14 and 18 years were used as representative sample for older adolescents. A 14-item questionnaire measuring adolescent-parent relationships was utilized to examine the quality of this relationship. Chi-square statistics was used to analyze the results which showed that early adolescents were more positive in their relationship with their parents than older ones, X2 cal =1.37; X2 critical = 7.815, df 3. Result of this study has implication on child-parent interaction - on the kind of control expected of parents on their children bearing in mind differences in cognitive development of adolescents of different chronological ages.
Media violence and violent behaviour of Nigerian youths : intervention strategies : child & adolescent therapy and e-therapyAuthor Eziaku K. UkohaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 230 –237 (2013)More Less
This paper reviews the result of researches on the effects of media violence on youths and tries to relate these to the increased exhibition violence among Nigerian youths. These research results reveal unequivocal evidence that media violence increases the likelihood of the incidence of aggressive and violent behavior on both immediate and long term contexts. Longitudinal studies have provided converging evidence linking frequent exposure to violent media in child hood with aggressive later in life. Characteristics of viewers, social environments and media content, were identified as factors that influence the degree to which media violence affects aggression. Research findings further suggest that no one is wholly immune to the effects of media violence. Interactive media, such as video games and the internet, have been shown to be more potent in affecting individuals. Studies on the effects of violent video games have shown that they cause increases in aggressive thoughts, effect and behavior in physiological arousal. The paper concludes that youth violent behaviours seem to be increasing in form, as the violent content of media increases in form and diversity. The world has become a global village, so there is a need to monitor the media forms allowed into our nation, and to monitor what youths are exposed to. A lot of violent acts are in already taking place in our society, especially in institutions of higher learning, and youths are involved in most causes. It is time to take a serious look at youth violence and the enormous violent content and form of the Nigerian media. The paper recommends, among other things, that the mass media should be censored more seriously. Age limits should be clearly indicated on media programmes sold in the market. Parents, teachers and care givers and even youths should be educated on the harm done by consuming large doses of violent media content. Research should be done to investigate the relationship between media violence and the violent behaviour of Nigerian youths.
Effectiveness of PQ4R study technique on performance of students in chemistry : child & adolescent therapy and e-therapySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 238 –244 (2013)More Less
The study investigated the effectiveness of PQ4R study technique on performance of students in Chemistry in secondary schools in Ibadan south east Local Government Area, Oyo State. The study adopted pre-test, post-test control design. A sample of 80 students selected from two schools by simple random technique was used. One school constituted the experimental group and the other the control group. An instrument which consisted of forty objective and two essay questions was developed, validated and used for the study. The instrument was titled "Chemistry Achievement Test" (CAT.) Data collected were analyzed using t-test. The results showed that while there was no difference in the pre-test scores of the experimental and control groups (t = 0.53, p > 0.05), there was a significant difference in the post-test scores (t= 8.2, p < 0.05) . The results also indicated that there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female students that used the PQ4R (t = 0.48, p > 0.05). The study concluded that the PQ4R was effective in improving the performance of students in Chemistry.
Self-assessed quality of parent-child interaction and parental care of Redeemer's University adolescents : a pilot study : child & adolescent therapy and e-therapySource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 245 –253 (2013)More Less
Parent-child relationship has been consistently associated with children's development, adjustment, well-being and educational attainment. Children psychological adjustment has also been empirically linked with the degree to which children perceive the quality of their parental-care. The quality of parent-child interaction and parental care of Nigerian adolescents were however yet to receive adequate research attention. This study aimed at eliciting adolescents' self-assessed quality of parent-child interaction and parental care, and their perceived effects on adolescents' psychological health. Findings from the study may assist in preventing and managing developmental crisis among Nigerian adolescents. 185 adolescent students of Redeemer's University, Nigeria responded to a structured questionnaire. The quality of their parent-child interactions was perceived as adequate by most of the adolescents. However, 27.8% of them felt otherwise. 15.13% of adolescents would blame their parents for any deficit in their social development while 6.49% of them would blame their parents for any deficit in their spiritual development. The quality of parental care was also assessed to be adequate by most of the majority, though few felt otherwise. 34.62% of the adolescents reported that inadequate quality of parent-child interaction affected their psychological health negatively. Also, 22.12% of them believed that inadequate quality of parental care had negative effects on their psychological health. A significant positive correlation was observed between quality of parent-child interaction and quality of parental care, and negative correlation between age and quality of parental care. No significant correlation was however observed between age and quality of parent-child interaction. Neither perceived quality of parent-child interaction nor quality of parental care was significantly influenced by gender. Findings were discussed in line with the existing literatures and current socio cultural realities of Nigeria. Appropriate recommendations were put forward.
Author Rachel B. AsagbaSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 254 –259 (2013)More Less
From literature review, Logotherapy is less utilized in Nigeria. Despite of the brevity of the therapy, many Nigerian psychotherapists are yet to imbibe it in their practice. In demonstrating the effectiveness of Logotherapy in African culture, specifically Nigerian culture, the paper briefly examines the history of psychotherapy and highlights what logotherapy is about along with illustrations on how its holistic form of therapy is very useful in Nigerian culture.
In conclusion, some justifications for using logotherapy are provided in order to guide African psychotherapists in their decision making.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 260 –267 (2013)More Less
With the expansion of global communication, social interactions supported by modern technologies have become an important part of our personal, professional, educational and political lives. The internet is a defining feature of modern life, it represents the most increasing mass medium of the last years. Besides television, radio and print media, it belongs to the most important media to get information and news from. Moreover, the Internet is a multi functional medium with a lot of interfaces to fulfil several services. Apart from the simple task of providing information and news, it serves the human desire of communication through emails, chats, forums and Internet telephony. Furthermore, it provides a medium to satisfy nearly all primary and secondary human needs. In this context the Internet represents the most powerful medium of modern mass media, because it provides a huge number of services with a great variety.
Assessment and management of shyness using group cognitive behavioural therapy among selected Nigerian adolescents : child & adolescent therapy and e-therapyAuthor C.S. UmehSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 268 –276 (2013)More Less
Shyness is a term that is often used to describe discomfort people feel in social situations. It does not only describe a feeling state rather characteristics of some individuals that have hindered them from achieving their potentials. This condition has been found to be more among adolescents and it ranges from mild, moderate to severe levels with the impact debilitating to self-development. Yet due attention has not been paid to studying this condition. This study assessed shyness in adolescents and managed it using group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) among those with high level of it. The participants were 240 secondary school students comprising 120 males and 120 females, aged between 10 and 19 years (Mean = 14.63, SD = 2.47) selected using stratified random sampling from a private secondary school in Lagos. Shyness Scale 34 (SS-34) was administered to them and 36 of them whose scores indicate high level of shyness were identified. They were then divided into 2 groups of treatment and control using odd-even random assignment. While the treatment group was subjected to 10 sessions of group CBT, nothing was done to the control group. Employing a pretest-post-test design, Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the data. The result shows that after adjusting for pretest scores, there was a significant effect of the between subjects factor groups, F (1, 33) = 47.70, p < .00, partial n2 = .59. Adjusted mean recognition scores suggest that group cognitive behavioural therapy lowered the level of shyness significantly thereby making it a useful technique in the management of shyness. The result was discussed in the light of the need to assess and manage shyness in adolescent toward empowering them to realize their potentials.
Source: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 277 –280 (2013)More Less
Information and Communication Technology continues to be dispersed at a very rapid rate all over the world driving all the sectors of human endeavors. E-therapy is a new therapeutic modality aimed at assisting clients to resolve life and relationship issues through electronic means, synchronous or asynchronous. E-therapy, often called a variety of names including online practice, e-counseling, web-based therapy, web-based counseling, e-mail counseling, internet therapy, and therap-e-mail is a process of interacting with a therapist online in ongoing conversations over time when the client and counselor are in separate or remote locations and utilize electronic means to communicate with each other. This paper examines e-therapy as a contemporary tool in clinical practice; consider its types and practicality, advantages and disadvantages, guidelines/ethical issues surrounding e-therapy, and prospects for use in Nigerian clinical settings.
Author Ola IbigbamiSource: IFE PsychologIA : An International Journal 21, pp 281 –282 (2013)More Less
It was with deep sorrow that the news of the exit of Professor Olufemi Morakinyo filtered through the Obafemi Awolowo University community and beyond the borders of Nigeria. He was a man renowned for his professional prowess within the family of mental health professionals within and outside the shores of Nigeria. His professional achievements drifted between the poorly charted course of the role of African Culture in the interpretation of Psychopathology and its effect on the development of culturally appropriate forms of psychotherapy. Countless number of students who passed through the department of Mental Health in Obafemi Awolowo University would remember his calm countenance and apathetic nature as he asks them to describe "the role of AYE in Psychopathology". As simple as this question is, to then students it was the ultimate question without an answer satisfactory enough to please "Professor Moraks" as he was secretly nicknamed by the students. His numerous contributions to the training and development of the field of mental health will always be remembered by many generations of Psychiatrists and Psychologists to come.