African Security Review - Volume 12, Issue 3, 2003
Volume 12, Issue 3, 2003
Author Len Le RouxSource: African Security Review 12, pp 5 –15 (2003)More Less
Sub-Saharan Africa is a region facing many problems and challenges. Many of the countries in the region are experiencing internal conflicts and others are involved in processes of peace negotiations and post-conflict peace building. All these countries face the challenge of defence sector transformation in order to align their post-conflict defence departments and military forces with the demands of democratic societies. This is more than a demand for a reduction in defence spending and requires a fundamental change in defence policies, management and practises. There are, however, lessons to be learnt from other similar experiences in the region. This article examines some of those lessons and presents a generic model for defence sector transformation in sub-Saharan Africa.
Author Naison NgomaSource: African Security Review 12, pp 17 –28 (2003)More Less
The Southern African sub-region has had a long history of conflict as well as efforts to create some sort of inter-state institutional arrangements designed to mitigate conflicts and enhance collaboration on a wide range of socio-political and economic dimensions. Although this road has been long and hard, indications thus far show a concerted effort to create a viable collaborative security arrangement. The vibrant discussions at the summit level, establishments of protocols as well as the Strategic Indicative Plan for the Organ and the draft Mutual Defence Pact are evidence of this. This paper concludes that the SADC region is indeed moving towards a security community.
Source: African Security Review 12, pp 29 –37 (2003)More Less
Progress in the DRC peace process has continually originated from sources outside of the existing agreements, treaties and protocols. This has been the case since the signing of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement. Of great concern is the increase in armed groups who shoot their way to the negotiating table and then assert themselves within the ICD. The implication is that military action, not popular support for a manifesto, has propelled individuals and groups into positions of power. Many of these groups seek to pre-empt the democratic process of the elections to be held two years from now. Against this background, ordinary citizens in the DRC have faced terrible living conditions. Forced to flee from the marauding groups (especially in the east), hundreds of thousands of Congolese have sought refugee in neighbouring states. Furthermore, in the two Kivu provinces and the Ituri region, intense fighting has erupted between the signatories of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement and amongst former allies: Rwanda and Uganda. The ICD, though expected to provide a new political order, has not achieved that goal. The ICD did not reach agreement on a constitution, a balanced transitional authority, or the formation of a new national army. Agreement has only been secured through discussion outside the framework of the ICD process.
Author Gysbert EngelbrechtSource: African Security Review 12, pp 61 –69 (2003)More Less
The newly constituted International Criminal Court is an important development in the fight against the most serious crimes of international concern. It will only be possible to look more closely at the role and impact of the court in the world, and Africa in particular, once it is explained how the court and its organs will function. In this regard the court's jurisdiction, the concept of complementarity and the role of the prosecutor are important. It would then be possible to see if the ICC could get involved in Africa, or whether it could be prevented from investigating and prosecuting such crimes. At the moment, it appears that the role of the ICC in Africa will be limited.
Source: African Security Review 12, pp 71 –81 (2003)More Less
The African Union is preparing for its enhanced role in the maintenance of peace and security by establishing a Peace and Security Council that is tasked with identifying threats and breaches of the peace. To this end, the AU has recommended the development of a common security policy and, by 2010, the establishment of an African Standby Force capable of rapid deployment to keep, or enforce, the peace. The ASF would comprise of standby brigades in each of the five regions, and incorporate a police and civilian expert capacity. G8 leaders have pledged support for the AU proposal through funding, training, and enhanced co-ordination of activities. For its part, the AU will need to undertake a realistic assessment of member capabilities, to clearly articulate its needs, and to set realistic and achievable goals. The latest plan for establishing a rapidly deployable African peacekeeping force will require something that similar proposals have lacked: the political will to fund and implement a long list of recommendations. Success will ultimately be judged by the AU's future responses to situations of armed conflict. Even if such responses are largely symbolic in the short term, a sufficient display of political will among African leaders could inspire the confidence needed to galvanise international support.
Author John G. Nyuot YohSource: African Security Review 12, pp 83 –93 (2003)More Less
Conflict resolution processes must meet certain prerequisites and conditions. Unless the warring parties or the mediators meet, it will be difficult to find lasting and just solutions to the conflicts in the Horn (Djibouti, Eritrea and Ethiopia, and Somalia). Most of these conflicts have ethnic or religious components and also have a lot do with the nature of the government institutions and the power distribution among the communities within these states. Identifying the main causes of the conflict and the issues involved in each country is a very necessary first step toward peace. Secondly, conditions have to be identified that would make the current peace agreements work. This includes identifying the specific problems faced by the parties involved; ascertaining the validity of the mechanisms through which the problems will be overcome; and planning how the agreements will be maintained. The knowledge that mediators have about the conflict is often as important as the actual meeting of parties at the negotiation table. This article also evaluates the peace initiatives underway in the Horn and attempts to identify the apparent reasons that prevented their implementation.
Author Charles Van WijkSource: African Security Review 12, pp 105 –108 (2003)More Less
The SANDF has missed a critical opportunity to enhancing a unified corporate identity with the introduction of their new rank insignia. Cultural and organisational symbols reflect and create corporate identity. Military uniforms are important symbols in expressing affiliation and loyalty. Rank insignia are important indicators of further sub-group identity. The SANDF was formed out of the integration of various armed forces in 1994. The newly formed SANDF recognised the need for new symbols to reflect their new identity-a break with the past-and to enhance their unified identity. New rank insignia were introduced in 2002, with different symbols for the different services. The author argues that this will create greater service-bound identity, and encourage less unity in the corporate identity of the SANDF.