n South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation - Relationship between demographic variables and leisure constraints of selected South African first-year university students

Volume 40 Number 3
  • ISSN : 0379-9069


This study aimed to determine the influence of demographic variables on leisure constraint among selected South African first-year students. Based on an availability sample, first-year students (N=334) from academic programmes in sport, recreation or leisure studies at six South African university campuses were selected. The leisure constraints questionnaire used, consists of 21 statements and measures of perceived leisure constraints based on a five-point Likert scale. A confirmatory factor analysis, effect sizes, t-tests and ANOVA were used for the data analysis. Results indicate that white students experience more structural constraints than black students (p=0.032), while black students experience more interpersonal constraints than white students (p=0.019). Differences exist between Black and Indian students in terms of intrapersonal constraints (p≤0.05). English-speaking students experience greater intrapersonal constraint than students speaking African languages (p≤0.05). Students residing in private accommodation experience greater structural constraints than those staying in a university hostel (p=0.011). Students that grew up in rural areas/informal settlements experience less intrapersonal and structural constraints than students from cities or towns (p≤0.05). Leisure education programmes are suggested to assist students in negotiating these constraints.

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