1887

n South African Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease - Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with hypertension in South African primary care

Volume 16 Number 1
  • ISSN : 1811-6515

Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with hypertension at Johan Heyns Community Health Centre, Sedibeng district, South Africa.

Methods: A total of 328 participants were systematically sampled. A researcher-administered questionnaire collected information on: socio-demography, presence of diabetes, family history of hypercholesterolaemia, family history of fatal cardiovascular (CV) events, and engagement in physical activities. Other measurements included: blood pressure (BP), weight, height, abdominal circumference and electrocardiography (ECG). Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-squared test and regression analysis. Main outcome measures included the proportions of participants with each CV risk and their significant sociodemographic determinants.

Results: Participants’ mean age was 57.7 years. Most participants were black (86.0%), female (79%) and pensioners (43.6%). The mean BP was 139/84 mmHg, and 60.7% had their BP controlled to targets. There was an average of 3.7 CV risk factors per participant and the prevalence of CV risk factors was: abdominal obesity (80.8%), physical inactivity (73.2%), diabetes (30.2%), alcohol use (28.0%), hypercholesterolaemia (26.5%), smoking (11.9%), past family history of fatal CV event (14.9%), and left ventricular hypertrophy (5.2%). Sociodemographic factors significantly associated with each CV risk factor were: obesity and being female (p = 0.00); alcohol use and young age (p = 0.00); smoking, being male and race other than black (p = 0.00 and p = 0.00, respectively); physical inactivity, being a pensioner and male (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02, respectively); diabetes and being male (p = 0.03); hypercholesterolaemia and race other than black (p = 0.03); family history of hypercholesterolaemia and race other than black (p = 0.00); and family history of fatal CV event and race other than black (p = 0.00).

Conclusion: There is a high burden of CV risk factors among patients with hypertension in South African primary care, signifying a substantial risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in this setting. Interventions aimed at CVD risk reduction need to take cognisance of the sociodemographic correlates of CV risk factors.

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/content/journal/10520/EJC-16d751a436
2019-07-01
2019-10-17

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