n African Entomology - Management of Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips), and the potential use of entomopathogenic nematodes : a South African perspective - review article

Volume 27 Number 2
  • ISSN : 1021-3589



Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) or western flower thrips (WFT), has become a global pest of economic importance. WFT is extremely polyphagous, attacking a wide range of host plants in both field and greenhouse production systems. Chemical control is the most frequently used method for the control of WFT, but their cryptic nature, which protects them from contact with insecticides, and their resistance to many insecticides, have become critical limiting factors in terms of control. This has led to heightened emphasis on biological control in integrated pest management (IPM) programmes for WFT. Most commonly used predators are relatively large and unable to enter the cryptic spaces inhabited by WFT, thus limiting their ability to reduce WFT populations. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and fungi offer alternative biocontrol options that suit IPM programmes well. This review focuses on WFT and its management, with an emphasis on crops being grown under cover, and on the use of EPNs for biocontrol, from a South African perspective.

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