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n Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe - Die uitwerking van binnelandse aangeleenthede op buitelandse beleid, met spesifieke verwysing na hedendaagse gebeure in die Verenigde State van Amerika - navorsings- en oorsigartikel

Volume 59 Number 3
  • ISSN : 0041-4751
USD

 

Abstract

The effect of domestic affairs on foreign policy, with specific reference to current events in the United States of America

The impact of domestic affairs on foreign policy is becoming increasingly more crucial. The former affects the latter. Indeed, domestic policy substantially influences foreign policy, to the extent that foreign policy depends upon domestic policy. It can therefore be argued that foreign policy is the reflection of domestic policy. Kissinger, for example, held the opinion that foreign policy starts where domestic policy ends. The inter-connections between domestic and foreign affairs are undeniable. Foreign policy can never be detached from the domestic context from which it springs. Moreover, it seldom succeeds if it is not acceptable at home, since without domestic influence there could hardly be a foreign policy. Domestic pressures may take several different forms and the relationship between foreign-policy decision makers and domestic constituencies is shaped in part by the institutions of the society.

Foreign policy is formulated neither in a vacuum nor in isolation. It is embedded in national interests and its parameters are always shaped by those interests. With its core rooted in domestic affairs foreign policy is justifiably regarded as an extension of domestic policy, in that it expands from domestic interests. The linkages between the international and national environments are considered crucial in the decision-making process of foreign policy. Consequently, foreign policy decision-makers must have a comprehensive understanding of domestic affairs and policy before formulating and adopting a suitable foreign policy. No country has a foreign policy without any connection to its domestic policy. It is therefore essential that domestic affairs are included in the analysis of foreign policy decision-making and that the influence and consequential impact of domestic affairs on foreign policies be properly assessed. Domestic political calculations undoubtedly influence foreign policy choices – the symbiotic relationship between foreign affairs and domestic issues is a reality.


Dat buitelandse beleid as ’n refleksie van binnelandse beleid beskou kan word, blyk oorvloedig uit gesaghebbende uitsprake betreffende die belangrike verhouding tussen buitelandse en binnelandse aangeleenthede. Buitelandse beleid word nie in ’n vakuum geformuleer en uitgevoer nie, maar ontstaan uit, groei en word gevoed deur binnelandse beleid. Daarom kan gestel word dat buitelandse beleid eintlik ’n neweproduk van binnelandse beleid is. Buitelandse beleidmakers moet derhalwe ’n omvattende begrip van hul eie binnelandse omstandighede en beleid hê alvorens ’n buitelandse beleid geformuleer en aanvaar word. Buitelandse beleid is daarop gemik om binnelandse en internasionale doelstellings te bereik en behels gewoonlik ’n uitgebreide reeks stappe waarin binnelandse politiek en faktore ’n belangrike rol speel. Om hierdie rede kan gestel word dat buitelandse beleid bepaal en verfyn word wanneer binnelandse en internasionale rolspelers en groepe saamwerk. Buitelandse beleid is selde suksesvol as dit nie eers tuis aanvaar word nie en in hierdie verband word daar dikwels verwys na ’n tuisgemaakte buitelandse beleid (“a home-grown foreign policy”). In die digitale era vervaag die grens tussen buitelandse en binnelandse aangeleenthede bowendien ook al hoe meer. Met die massiewe aanwending van al die moontlikhede wat hedendaagse digitale tegnologie bied, maak omgewingsbewustes byvoorbeeld wêreldwyd hul stemme dik om besluite op internasionale vlak te beïnvloed en verandering teweeg te bring. Baie van hierdie aktivistiese slagspreuke het nou ook al deel van die terminologie van internasionale verhoudings geword. Nietemin: om ’n land se buitelandse beleid te begryp, moet die binnelandse omstandighede en beleid eers ontleed en verstaan word. ’n Sprekende voorbeeld hiervan is die buitelandse beleid wat president Trump ywerig nastreef.

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/content/journal/10520/EJC-1869b00e48
2019-09-01
2019-11-20

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