oa South African Journal of Geology - A Palaeocurrent study of the Dwaal Heuvel Formation, Transvaal Supergroup

Volume 78 Number 2
  • ISSN : 1012-0750
  • E-ISSN: 1996-8590



Measurement of 833 cross-bed foresets in the Dwaal Heuvel Formation, Transvaal Supergroup (2 224 ± 21 million years old) at 41 localities along the eastern and north-eastern outcrop rim of the Transvaal Basin indicate transport of sediment towards the south and south-south-west. The formation becomes thinner and finer-grained in the down-current direction, and eventually feathers out into an assemblage of shale with oolitic ironstone lense,. The latter are considered to represent a more distal facies of the Dwaal Heuvel arenites.

Some of the elastic material which makes up the Dwaal Heuvel was probably derived by the de-roofing of the once-deeply buried metamorphics of the Limpopo Mobile Belt. This detritus was carried to the northern limit of the basin by rivers, there to be cistributed laterally by marine currents moving consistently to the south and south-west.

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