oa Africa Journal of Public Sector Development and Governance - Towards a less contentious electoral outcome in Sub-Saharan Africa - research

Volume 2 Number 2
  • ISSN : 2617-7714



The end of the 20th Century was characterised by a concerted struggle for democracy and the clamour for improved governance and development. The clarion call for greater freedom and justice coincided with the political fall-outs following the dramatic fall of the Berlin Wall, on 9 November 1989, and the collapse of the then Soviet Union (USSR) on 26 December 1991; coupled with the influence or pressure of Western governments and donors converging with the activism of domestic forces in demand of democratic reforms (Fukuyama 1992). These events have seemingly become push factors for the democratic discourse. This has provided the incentive and legitimacy for popular democratic struggles in the early 1990s, in what is known in literature as the ‘Third Wave’ of democratisation (Huntington 1991) that engulfed the entire world in the early 1990s.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error