n Journal of Public Administration and Development Alternatives (JPADA) - Group networking and policy implementation dynamics in Zimbabwe’s urban areas : a case of public sanitation in harare

Volume 4 Number 2
  • ISSN : 2415-5446


This article analyses the role of groups in policy implementation in Harare. There is a generally accepted assumption that the influence of groups in policy implementation would, if well nurtured on the benefits of groups in policy implementation, enhance behaviour change education. This article uses both purposive and cluster sampling to select twenty public toilets, targeting informal groups with structures at each of the selected sites. The Group Network Theoretical approach was used to determine the influence of groups on policy implementation. Authoritative data on the role of teams and groups was collected through key informant interviews of council officials and representatives of groups located at each public toilet site. The article reports a study wherein information was collected though focus group discussions and participant observations of public toilets and their surroundings to determine the role of groups. Data on the role of teams was also obtained through the distribution of 395 questionnaires to the informal group members. The study finds that there were few partners in public sanitation policy implementation with City of Harare (CoH) being the major sole service provider. Major actors that actively participated in public toilet construction and rehabilitation included Vost and Uniliver with government agencies and informal group members playing a peripheral role. The article also finds that social groups such as touts, vendors and street children resorted, at times, to anti-social behaviour by engaging in acts of vandalism, public urination and use of alleys as places of convenience. The article recommends that HCC embraces the hybrid model which advocates for increased partnership with the private sector and informal groups. For sustainable public sanitation policy implementation, there is a need for the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) to embrace the multi-actor approach which entails inclusivity, integration, harmony and collaboration among major actors.

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