1887

oa Litnet Akademies : 'n Joernaal vir die Geesteswetenskappe, Natuurwetenskappe, Regte en Godsdienswetenskappe - Grondhervorming : is onteiening sonder vergoeding die magiese “silwer koeël” of is dit ’n (berekende) skoot in die donker?

Volume 16 Number 3
  • ISSN : 1995-5928

 

Abstract

Die oorgang na ’n grondwetlike demokrasie in 1994 het ’n indringende en omvattende grondhervormingsprogram vooropgestel weens jare lange koloniale en apartheidsbenaderings tot grond. ’n Uniek Suid-Afrikaanse program sluit herverdeling van grond, grondbeheerhervorming en restitusie in. Wat herverdeling van grond betref, is ’n opemarkbenadering gevolg, gefundeer op die gewillige-verkoper-gewillige-koper-beginsel (GVGKbeginsel). Toenemend is aansprake gemaak dat die GVGK-beginsel grondhervorming omslagtig en uitgerek, asook duur en onvolhoubaar gemaak het. Een of ander intervensie was vervolgens nodig, enersyds ’n aanpassing of regulering van die mark waar grond en eiendom vir grondhervormingsdoeleindes verkry word, en andersyds, ’n aanpassing van die raamwerk waarbinne onteiening funksioneer, om dit meer op een lyn met die Grondwet te bring. Onlangse ontwikkelings in hierdie arena sluit in die inwerkingtreding van die Property Valuation Act 7 van 1914, hersiening van die eiendomsklousule en die publikasie van die Draft Expropriation Bill in Desember 2018. Vir die eerste keer maak laasgenoemde voorsiening vir die moontlikheid van onteiening met nul vergoeding by vyf moontlike grondkategorieë.

Land reform: Is expropriation without compensation the magical “silver bullet” or is it a (calculated) shot in the dark?

The dawning of a new constitutional dispensation necessitated an in-depth and allencompassing land reform programme, given the South African history of dispossession embedded in colonialism and apartheid. A uniquely South African programme was required, as it had to redress the impact of past racially based land control approaches while simultaneously being forward-looking: promoting access to land and tenure security. In this regard three inter-connected sub-programmes were developed, constituting redistribution (broadening access to land), tenure reform (upgrading insecure rights) and restitution (restoring land and rights in land lost after 19 June 1913). All of these sub-programmes are constitutionally grounded in section 25(5), (6) and (7) respectively, and further bolstered by section 25(8) of the Constitution. With regard to redistribution specifically, a market-based or market-assisted approach was followed, founded on the willing-buyer-willing-seller principle. Increasingly this approach was criticised – for being too complex and burdensome, but more importantly, for making land reform far too expensive and thus unsustainable. It was in this context that a twofold intervention was called for: adjustment or regulation of the market in terms of which land and property could be acquired for land reform purposes on the one hand and reconsideration of the framework within which expropriation operated on the other. Recent developments in this arena include the promulgation of the Property Valuation Act in 2014, embarking on a review process of section 25, the property clause in 2018, and the publication of the Draft Expropriation Bill on 21 December 2018. For the first time provision was made for the possibility of expropriation with nil compensation with respect to five categories of land in particular.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journal/10520/EJC-1c320bdbb4
2019-12-01
2020-09-29

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error