oa Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases - The prevalence and bacterial distribution of peritonitis amongst adults undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at Universitas hospital - original research

Volume 35 Number 1
  • ISSN : 2312-0053



Background: Peritonitis is the leading cause of morbidity and technique failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) recommends each centre to monitor the peritonitis rates and the causative organisms in order to guide local empiric antibiotic protocols. The aim of this study was to report on the peritonitis rates and describe the causative microorganisms and the antibiotic susceptibility in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) adult patients at the Universitas Academic Hospital.

Methods: A single-centre, retrospective descriptive survey was conducted to determine the peritonitis rates in PD patients (January–December 2016). All CAPD patients aged ≥18 years, who presented with clinical features of PD-associated peritonitis, were included. The peritonitis episodes were studied per patient, and the causative microorganisms and the antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms were described.

Results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients underwent CAPD. The peritonitis rate was 1.45 episodes per year at risk. The prevalence of CAPD patients affected by at least one episode of CAPD-associated peritonitis during 2016 was 56.3%. The majority of episodes (76.7%) (n = 122) were mono-microbial. Gram-positive organisms accounted for 73.0% (n = 116) of the peritonitis episodes, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus being the most common. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 15.7% (n = 25) of the peritonitis episodes, and the common pathogens was Enterobacteriaceae.

Conclusion: The peritonitis rate was alarmingly high, with 1.45 episodes per year at risk; this is three times more than the recommended 0.5 episodes per year according to the ISPD guidelines. The culture-negative rate of 8.8% is within ISPD-acceptable limits. There is a need to strengthen preventive measures with regard to peritonitis.

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