n Southern African Humanities - Ancient metallurgy in the Tswapong Hills, Botswana : a preliminary report on archaeological context

Volume 28 Number 1
  • ISSN : 1681-5564
  • E-ISSN: 2305-2791


Archaeo-metallurgical research in the Tswapong Hills of southeastern Botswana has yielded evidence for two smelting traditions. Forced draft furnaces were made by Happy Rest and Diamant communities (Kalundu Tradition), while Zhizo communities (Nkope Branch of Urewe) used natural draft furnaces. The ores were similar, so the difference was most likely cultural. During smelting operations, the people stayed in temporary villages, such as Makodu, constructed for that purpose.

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