Conflict Trends - latest Issue
Volumes & issues
Volume 2016, Issue 3, 2016
Author Vasu GoundenSource: Conflict Trends 2016 (2016)More Less
Twenty-five years after the cold war, we are experiencing one of the most peaceful and prosperous eras in the history of humanity, and yet inequality is at its highest level ever and violent intrastate conflicts continue to proliferate across the world. In Africa, inequality and violent intrastate wars overshadow the progress that the continent has made in growing its economies by getting young people into schools and rolling out the necessary infrastructure to create a climate for businesses to grow.
Conflict resurgence and the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan : a hurried and imposed peace pact?Author Clayton Hazvinei VhumbunuSource: Conflict Trends 2016, pp 3 –12 (2016)More Less
The hope for peace and stability in South Sudan was restored when a peace pact - the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (ARCSS) - was signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement and Army in Government (SPLM/A-IG) and SPLM/A in Opposition (SPLM/A-IO), as represented by President Salva Kiir Mayardit and First Vice President Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon respectively. The agreement, which was signed on 17 August 2015 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and on 26 August 2015 in Juba, South Sudan, was ratified by the South Sudan National Legislative Assembly on 10 September 2015. The agreement sought to end the deadly civil war that had broken out in South Sudan in December 2013, following power struggles between Kiir and Machar and the allegations of an attempted coup made by the former against the latter.
Author Lesley ConnollySource: Conflict Trends 2016, pp 13 –19 (2016)More Less
As the African Union (AU) has become a stronger actor in peace operations, coordination with the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has risen in importance. Beyond working together on a case-by-case basis, such as the AU-United Nations (UN) hybrid mission in Somalia, the two organisations are seeking a broader and more complementary relationship. In the last year, we have witnessed an increasing convergence, with the development of the AU Common Position on the Peace Operations Review and Joint UN-AU Framework for an Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security. These were followed by recommendations stressing the importance of partnerships with regional organisations, from the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations and the Secretary-General's response to this seminal report. Yet, the issue of financing African peace operations has been a long-standing contentious issue, leaving the AU in a subordinate position and reliant on external donors to support its operations. This is all about to change, however, with the recent decision taken at the 27th AU Summit to introduce a 0.2% levy on imports, thus moving the two organisations towards a more complementary relationship.
Strengthening community engagement in United Nations peace operations : opportunities and challengesAuthor Natasja RupesingheSource: Conflict Trends 2016, pp 20 –26 (2016)More Less
Strengthening and deepening engagement with communities in United Nations (UN) peace operations has emerged as a key priority among high-level reviews of the UN system. The report of the High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations (HIPPO), the report of the Advisory Group of Experts (AGE) for the Review of the UN Peacebuilding Architecture, the Global Study on the Implementation of Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, as well as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, have all emphasised the need to develop bottom-up, people-centred approaches. Across the board, there is a renewed commitment to support constructive state-society relations through inclusive, nationally and locally owned, broad-based, consultative processes.
Author Martha MutisiSource: Conflict Trends 2016, pp 27 –35 (2016)More Less
The current era has witnessed the increasing need by the African Union (AU) and subregional organisations to be more involved as first responders to conflict situations in the region. This trend, which involves the use of preventive diplomacy efforts, mediation, peace support operations, peacekeeping, peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts, has situated Africa at the forefront of peace processes on the continent. A number of developments explain this trend, including the specific provisions in the United Nations (UN) Charter, specifically Chapter VIII, which provides for regional arrangements to deal with peace and security matters, provided that "such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations".
Source: Conflict Trends 2016, pp 36 –41 (2016)More Less
Since its independence in 1956, Sudan has been ravaged by war. For residents of the western-most state in the country, Darfur, the war has led to ethnic cleansing on a massive scale. During the peak years of the war, 2003-2005, the Sudanese Air Force struck villages using assault helicopters and Russian-made Antonov bombers. Ground forces followed aerial attacks with infantry assaults, targeting ethnic tribes that the Sudanese government accused of supporting rebel resistance movements. Three ethnic tribes received the brunt of these assaults: the Fur, Massalit and Zaghawa. The perpetrators included the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), as well as the Arab militia group known as the Janjaweed. From a sociological perspective, the Janjaweed is comprised of a loose consolidation of five subgroups: former bandits, demobilised government soldiers, young members of Arab tribes, common criminals and young unemployed Arab men. The term janjaweed originally meant "horsemen with G [Jim] guns", and later evolved to mean "devil on a horse". The attackers systematically killed men, raped women and abducted children; they also targeted essential resources, destroying livestock, torching fields, poisoning wells and levelling health clinics and schools. According to United Nations (UN) reports, more than 300 000 Darfuri civilians have been killed since 2003, and approximately 3 000 000 people were forcibly exiled.
Author Olubunmi D. AkandeSource: Conflict Trends 2016, pp 42 –49 (2016)More Less
The complexities of contemporary violent conflicts in Africa, coupled with the need to engage more holistic models of conflict management that prioritise social structures and relations, have given rise to participatory approaches at all levels of conflict management. Participatory media provides ample opportunities to challenge elitist models of communication and also creates space for interactive processes that reinforce a sense of shared identity in communities affected by violent conflicts. This article conceptualises participatory media and explores the potential of participatory communication methodologies for rebuilding fractured social relations and facilitating reconciliation in conflict communities. Examples of participatory media practices in post-conflict communities in Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa are presented to project the potential of this approach for conflict transformation.
Author Hillary Jephat MusarurwaSource: Conflict Trends 2016, pp 50 –56 (2016)More Less
Zimbabwe has experienced different forms of conflicts since independence in 1980. It is appropriate to apply a systems approach for us to unpack Zimbabwe's conflict to date. The causal loop diagram (CLD) in Figure 1 summarises the conflict.
The CLD clearly indicates that Zimbabwe's conflict is a complex web of sociopolitical and economic challenges. These include issues such as poor service delivery, corruption, poverty, unemployment, poor economic performance, policy inconsistency, lack of independence of the judiciary, lack of rule of law, human rights abuse, dictatorship, lack of civic education, reduced voter confidence and issues with the credibility of elections.