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Volume 21, Issue Issue-41, 2015
Assessment of food handler's compliance to personal hygiene practices in fast food outlets in Thohoyandou, South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1102 –1113 (2015)More Less
Food safety is becoming a key public health priority because a large number of people consume their meals outside their homes. As a result, they are exposed to food borne illnesses that originate from food stalls, restaurants and other food outlets. Hence the major objective of carrying out this research study was to assess food handler's adherence to personal hygiene practices in fast food outlets in Thohoyandou as stipulated in national food hygiene and regulations. The data was collected using participant observational checklist. Simple random sampling was used to select 122 food handlers as participants in the study. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages). Result analysis was made based on the standards and the requirements prescribed by Regulation R962 of November 2012. The findings showed that food handlers observed personal hygiene by wearing clean uniforms, covering their heads with hair nets, and washed their hands, indicating that food handlers maintained accepted standards in terms of personal hygiene regulations. Regarding health surveillance practices majority of food handler were not medically examined regularly, however they reported illness to management when sick, but some prepared food when they had cough and open sores on their hands. The study recommends that strict adherence to Regulations R962 be enforced and adhered to in order to ensure and assure the preservation and maintenance of food safety.
A survey of South African radiographers' and radiologists' opinions on role extension for radiographersSource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1114 –1125 (2015)More Less
Role extension for radiographers in South Africa is driven by the need to improve service delivery challenges and the radiographers' need for professional recognition. The two areas earmarked for role extension are injection of contrast media and reporting on radiographs. This study was conducted to determine the willingness of diagnostic radiographers to extend their roles and gather the opinions of radiologists regarding this role extension. A quantitative, descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study was conducted. A sample of 300 radiographers and 30 radiologists was taken from a population of 7771 radiographers and 885 radiologists as per the Health Professions Council of South Africa register (HPCSA). Survey Monkey was used for making questionnaires accessible to all participants. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Sixty-eight percent of radiographers agreed in principle to injection of contrast media and only 25.5% agreed to provide a written report on the interpretation of radiographs. Eighty percent of radiologists agreed in principle to radiographers injecting contrast media and only 11.6% agreed to radiographers providing a written report on the interpretation of radiographs. The participants gave an average response of 74.4% on the need for radiologists to take responsibility for the adverse reactions that may results from injecting contrast media. Radiographers and radiologists supported the need for further education and training and role extension for injecting contrast media. There is concern over the 'no one' response as to who performs radiologists' work and how this impacted on service delivery.
Caregivers' and nurses' perceptions of the responsibilities of community nurses in the management of infant developmental needs in a primary healthcare clinic in South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1126 –1138 (2015)More Less
By virtue of their access to infants and their families, community nurses in South Africa are provided with an important window of opportunity to assess and positively influence infant health and development. Hence, developmental surveillance should be incorporated into the ongoing healthcare of the child. Such routine child development services are not consistently provided by community nurses and if at all these services are provided, significant inadequacies hamper the delivery thereof. A single holistic case study design was used to explore the perceptions of caregivers and community nurses about the responsibilities of community nurses regarding the management of infant developmental needs in a primary healthcare clinic in one of the provinces in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five nurses and eleven caregivers of infants. Data were analysed by means of content analysis. Community nurses do not focus adequately on infant development, as stipulated in their scope of practice. The caregivers indicated that they receive limited emotional and appraisal support. The only interventions indicated by the community nurses were that of referral and limited anticipatory guidance. This study highlights the importance of community nurses living up to their responsibility regarding the management of infant developmental needs to ensure optimal outcomes for both the infant and the family.
Hydrotherapy and its effects on chronic pain intensity, physical functionality and quality of life in the elderlySource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1139 –1149 (2015)More Less
Chronic pain is often associated with impaired muscle strength and limited physical activity and performance, resulting in impaired physical functioning. This study aimed to determine whether voluntary participation in a structured 6-week hydrotherapy exercise programme would improve pain management, functionality and quality of life in an elderly population (n = 22; 77.7 ± 6.6 y)suffering from chronic pain and living in nursing homes in Tshwane. The experimental group (n= 13) attended hydrotherapy classes twice a week for six weeks, while the control group (n = 9)did not. Questionnaires were completed (Chronic Pain Grade, Functional Status Index, and the SF 36), and functional testing performed, in both groups at weeks 0, 3 and 6. The experimental group reported reduced pain intensity at week 3 (p = 0.051); reduced pain-induced disability at week 6 (p = 0.080); reduced assisted help required for activities of daily living (ADL) at week 3 (p = 0.040); reduced difficulty on performing ADL at week 3 (p = 0.012) and reduced pain experienced with ADL at week 3 (p = 0.007) and week 6 (p = 0.014). Improvements in upper body strength and agility were demonstrated. Improvements in sub-scales for quality of life were demonstrated at weeks 3 and 6. The control group showed no statistically significant changes in the above parameters. In conclusion, participation in structured hydrotherapy classes has been shown in this small study to be a beneficial intervention strategy for managing chronic pain in the elderly.
Source: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1150 –1160 (2015)More Less
The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of the newly qualified professional nurses in midwifery section. A qualitative descriptive, interpretative phenomenological research was conducted to determine the experiences. The sample included newly qualified professional nurses doing community service. Data collection was conducted by means of unstructured interviews from ten (n=10) informants. Each interview was approximately 45 minutes. Ethical issues were considered. Hussel and Heidergadian's data analysis steps were followed. Two (2) themes and eleven (11) sub-themes emerged from the data collected. The findings revealed that the newly qualified professional nurses were in a state of reality shock, demonstrated by challenges such as shortage of human and material resources; overcrowding; lack of support; and the placement of Midwifery. Nursing Science in the curriculum has impacted negatively on midwives' registration as professional nurses. The majority of professional nurses indicated that they will resign from their current employment as the environment was not conducive for practice. More support is needed for newly qualified professional nurses doing community services in public hospitals.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes and drug susceptibility patterns in Limpopo Province, South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1161 –1175 (2015)More Less
Tuberculosis is a worldwide health burden with high morbidity and mortality rates. About 8 million people are infected annually, with 1.5 million deaths reported in 2013. The disease is complicated by its high drug resistance and transmission rate. Information about drug resistance, evolutionary genetics and transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is limited in Limpopo Province. The aims of the study were therefore to characterise and genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples from patients living in Limpopo Province and to establish the main families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in the province and their main genetic mutations. Two hundred and seven (207) acid-fast positive samples were collected from National Health Laboratory Services in Polokwane. Geno Type MTBDRplus and Real-Time PCR were used to determine resistance genes and families, respectively. Beijing and non-Beijing genotypes were detected in 27.6% and 72.4% of the strains, respectively. Co-infection with both genotypes was detected in one sample. Of the 207 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains tested, 28 (13.5%) exhibited drug resistance, of which 14 isolates (50%) were multi-drug resistant. Monoresistant strains to rifampicin constituted 25% (7 isolates) and the other 25% (7 isolates) were mono-resistant to isoniazid. Rifampicin mutations were identified in codons 516 (43%), 526 (33%) and 531 (38%) of the rpoB gene. Isoniazid mutations were identified in codons 15 (19%) and 16 (14%) of the inhA gene and codon 315 (62%) of the katG gene. The non-Beijing is moreprevalent than the Beijing genotype in the Limpopo Province. Drug resistance against rifampicin and isoniazid was in different genes and codons. The high rate of drug resistance calls for continuous monitoring of antimicrobial drugs and treatment default by TB victims.
Sedentary behaviours of government employees in South Africa : are policy makers adopting a healthy lifestyle?Source: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1176 –1186 (2015)More Less
Poor eating habits and physical inactivity are directly linked to health consequences. It is however, not known whether the policymakers in the department of health have adopted a healthy lifestyle which include exercising and eating healthy or not. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the level of physical activity (PA) and eating habits of employees at the Gauteng Department of Health (GDOH), South Africa. The study was conducted among 340 employees of the National Head office of the Department of Health in South Africa. Height and weight were measured; and body mass index calculated. Physical activity level was measured using a validated International Physical Activity Questionnire (IPAQ) and food frequency questionnaire was used for eating habits. The results showed that 40% of participants were overweight, and 37.6% were obese, with females being more obese than males. Of these, 54.7% were inactive and only 14.9% met the WHO-reference for PA level. There was generally a high intake of oily foods and moderate intake of sugary food. Overweight and obesity together with physical inactivity and unhealthy eating were high among GDOH employees irrespective of gender, job category and age. Work site interventions that promote healthy lifestyle are possible interventions of utmost importance at this department to minimise the risk of obesity and subsequent development of non-communciable diseases.
A physical activity programme to improve motor and cognitive development in HIV positive children on antiretroviral therapy : a randomised controlled trialSource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1187 –1199 (2015)More Less
Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is known to be neurotropic and may cause motor and cognitive development impairment in HIV-positive children. There is inadequate evidence on the effectiveness of neuro-developmental therapy on the motor and cognitive development of HIV-positive children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a physical activity programme on motor and cognitive development in HIV-positive children. Children were randomly allocated to an intervention group who received an individual physical activity programme and massage therapy or to a control group who received standard treatment and massage therapy. Group allocation was concealed in sequentially numbered and opaque, sealed envelopes. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development third edition was used to assess the motor and cognitive development. One hundred and twenty eight children between the ages of three and 36 months were enrolled. No significant differences were found at three or six months after randomisation, between the two groups in the mean motor and cognitive development scores or in the proportions of children that presented with motor or cognitive developmental delay. Fewer children in both groups presented with a delay in motor development at the six-month follow-up visit. The proportion of children with cognitive delay decreased by 2% in the intervention group but increased by 15% in the control group at six months. Further research is required to investigate the need for the implementation of specially designed home-based physical activity intervention programmes with massage therapy to improve motor and cognitive development in HIV-positive children.
Source: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1200 –1216 (2015)More Less
This article is conceptual based on a perusal of academic journal articles and books on matters related to Community-based Tourism (CBT). It contends that CBT is a very important tool for local economic development, community development, empowerment and the attainment of social justice. It observes disparities between rich and poor countries in terms of endowments and how the multiple dimensions of poverty can confound how tourism can be experienced in different contexts. It posits an eight Es model which represents the fundamental pillars upon which to judge a CBT for purposes of support, monitoring and evaluation. The eight E are Endogenous (emphasising a reliance on local resources); Environment - (reflecting the importance of caring for the environment, and broader environmental conditions and infrastructure); Education - (to advance skills and education); Empowerment - (which embraces economic, psychological, social and political empowerment); Equity - (for equitable distribution and re-distribution of both benefits and resources); Evolving - (always improving and changing to take advantage of dynamic opportunities); Enduring - (for long term sustainability) and supporting Entrepreneurship - (for innovation, creativity and viability). The framework/model is also significant as it provides a common ground upon which the understanding of CBT could be carried at international and national level. The model can be customised to take into account local conditions; it is flexible and all-encompassing with potential to be used for rating facilities.
Source: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1217 –1231 (2015)More Less
Various studies have demonstrated that the interest, or enthusiasm to host sport tourism events has been due to the perceived potential of such events to promote development, especially in terms of economic growth and such profiled locations as tourist destinations. This article appraises the impacts of hosting sport tourism events in East London South Africa. The study adopted a mixed method research design incorporating the qualitative and quantitative paradigms. A stratified random sampling approach was adopted in which 380 questionnaires were administered to the respondents via face-to-face interviews. The survey which used a 5 point Likert scale measured 21 items covering various positive and negative impacts associated with hosting sport events. The most salient issue to emerge from the data was that, overall, 34.7% of residents agreed and 32.9% strongly agreed with impact statements indicating a generally positive perception. However, the results also indicate that residents are concerned about aspects of the environment when such events are hosted. Furthermore, besides crime and prostitution, residents were also concerned about the extent to which event benefits are equally distributed within the community. Study concludes that tourism planners need to tailor their decisions to the residents' perceptions. This will enhance community's support, which is an essential ingredient for the success of sport tourism in the destination. A holistic plan which takes into consideration residents' perceptions at the same time incorporating all role players in these events is a step towards the success and the future of sport tourism events.
A new tourism practice - developing a model for slow tourism at heritage sites and protected areas : a case of Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens, South AfricaSource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1232 –1246 (2015)More Less
Slow tourism is the practice of quality time spent by visitors and tourists, usually in areas with natural resources such as heritage sites, protected parks and gardens. Visiting slow tourism areas and engaging in slow tourism activities allows the visitor to appreciate the destination at a much deeper level and in a sensitive manner. Limited local literature is available in South Africa on this new emerging niche form of tourism, where the slow tourist has the opportunity to experience the journey and the destination by staying in one place for a longer time, to see and experience things that are meaningful to them. This new alternative form of tourism is considered an antithesis to mass tourism, and liberates the visitor from angst and stress brought about by today's fast-paced lifestyles. The study was conducted at the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens (KNBG) in Cape Town, South Africa, which has a strong attraction for tourists seeking open, green, natural spaces with unique flora and fauna. Tourism role-players and visitor groups have become more environmentally conscious in which they develop, promote, travel and consume tourism products. Sustainable and responsible tourism practices are at the forefront of the slow tourism phenomena which induces the demand and the supply chain of tourism products emphasised by ethical values. A predominately qualitative research methodology was followed to collect the primary data, using the grounded theory approach at the study site, and in-depth interviews with visitors and the Gardens management. The findings of the survey resulted in the development of a model to promote slow tourism using the economic resources of the KNBG.
Source: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1247 –1270 (2015)More Less
Considering the various formats of cricket, as well as the different reasons why tourists attend these events, it becomes clear that more direct marketing of these events is required in order to expand attendance at various cricket matches. It is furthermore important to generate a memorable event experience for attendees to encourage future attendance. This research therefore identified different cricket spectator segments at a five-day test match between Australia and South Africa, based on their main motives for attending. Our research has identified three distinct cricket fan clusters that differ in terms of their motives, socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, as well as the factors that are regarded by them as important for a memorable cricket experience. This research makes an important contribution to the greater understanding of sports spectators, specifically cricket spectators, and to the literature on managing and marketing team sport events of this nature.
Factors influencing South African consumers' attitudes and purchase intention towards foreign sport apparelSource: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1271 –1289 (2015)More Less
Although global markets are converging, the realisation of a homogeneous global consumption culture remains a mirage. Researchers have since argued that purchase decisions of foreign sport apparel are influenced more by a host of nationalistic sentiments dominant in the domestic market. This study adopted a quantitative approach to investigate the attitude and purchase intention of South African consumers towards foreign sport apparel. The study was undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey with a convenience sample of 320 South African consumers who had purchase experience of foreign sport apparel. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to validate the psychometric properties of five constructs that were measured by nineteen observed variables using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) Version 22.0. The CFA results indicated a good fit of all the measured constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesised relationships. Path modeling results indicated that South African consumers exhibit negative yet moderate levels of ethnocentrism and animosity towards foreign sport apparel. The study however, showed a positive significant relationship between cosmopolitanism and attitude towards foreign sport apparel. The study also showed a significant positive relationship between attitudes towards foreign sport apparel and consumer purchase intention. The findings of the study have important implications in the marketing of sport apparel in the context of an emerging market such as South Africa.
Source: African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance 21, pp 1290 –1303 (2015)More Less
The mandate of public local government is to provide services to constituents to improve overall quality of life. Local governments are increasingly pressured to provide services that reflect value for taxpayers' money and promise sustainable development. Sustainable development is, in turn,dependent upon quality decisions by political leaders and management capacity of civil servants. This study aimed to (1) determine the management capacity profile at sport and recreation facilities on local government level; and (2) identify areas of concern related to management capacity. The research design used was a quantitative, case study with a non-probability purposive sample (n=8). Although the purposive sample of eight recreation and sport facility managers is small, these respondents are responsible for managing 68% of the sport and recreation facilities within the scope of this investigation. Data was collected using the criteria based Capacity Analysis Tool self-administered questionnaire consisting of 88 sub-elements overeight dimensions of management (leadership, governance and strategy; administration and human resources; finances and budget of the facility; project design, management and evaluation; technical capacity; advocacy and networking; community ownership and accountability; and fund raising) and has a Cronbach Alpha value of 0.89 (x=0.89). Results indicated that the internalsystemic management capacity of the particular department in this investigation measured unsatisfactory ( x ± 2.50) in five of the eight management dimensions. While three dimensions scored satisfactory ( x ± 2.50) the overall collective management capacity score for all eight dimensions was unsatisfactory at x =2.33. As scholars proved a link between management capacity and organizational performance, the management capacity profile obtained from this study can be used as baseline from which management practices and capacity at sport and recreation facilities can be further developed.