African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine - latest Issue
Volume 8, Issue 2, 2016
Substance use amongst secondary school students in a rural setting in South Africa : prevalence and possible contributing factors : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.934More Less
Introduction : This study determined the prevalence of substance abuse amongst rural secondary school learners in a selected province of South Africa.
Methodology : The study adopted a quantitative approach using a descriptive survey design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 338 randomly selected learners, age 14 to 18 years, from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhembedzi circuit in the Limpopo Province. Permission to enter the circuit and the schools was obtained from the circuit manager and parents' or learners' informed consent was obtained prior to data collection.
Results : The majority of the participants (94% male, 98% female) had never used substances. Most of the learners started using substances between the ages 15 to 20 years. The majority of learners who were using substances were male. Of the respondents, all the female (100%) students reported to have stopped substance abuse. The majority (63% male, 50% female) of the learners tried to stop substance abuse but failed. Most of the learners (72% male, 71% female) did not have family members who were substance users. The majority of the students attested that substances can be easily obtained in their communities or villages. The majority (68%) of the leaners knew that substance abuse is dangerous to health.
Conclusion and recommendation : Rural secondary school learners in South Africa have a low prevalence rate of substance abuse. Hence, there is a need for a counselling program in each school to provide support and refer such learners to an appropriate institution for rehabilitation.
Awareness of prevention of teenage pregnancy amongst secondary school learners in Makhado municipality : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –5 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.967More Less
Background : Sexuality plays a very significant role in the lives of both boys and girls. It is, therefore, considered important for schools to recognise and accept sexuality as part of the development process of the child. Professor Kader Asmal (previous South African Minister of Education) suggested that the earlier the school begins to teach learners about sexuality, the better because they can be easily misled by their peers if proper guidance regarding their sexuality is not given.
Aim : The current study was conducted to assess the awareness of teenagers on the prevention of teenage pregnancy (TP) in six secondary school learners situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province.
Setting : The study was conducted at six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province in 2014.
Methodology : A quantitative descriptive survey study was conducted where data were collected, using self-administered questionnaires, from 381 systematically sampled participants from six secondary schools situated in the Soutpansberg-West circuit, Makhado Municipality in Limpopo province. Data were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22.0. Necessary approval procedures and ethical clearance were obtained prior to data collection.
Results : Ninety-four percent of participants agreed that TP can be prevented through abstaining from sex, whilst 65% of participants agreed that TP could be prevented by using contraceptives such as pills and injections. Eighty-three percent of participants agreed that TP could be prevented through the use of condoms. Seventy-four percent participants disagreed that bathing after sex prevents teenage pregnancies. Furthermore, 28% participants agreed that TP can be prevented by oral sex.
Conclusion : The conclusion drawn was that learners are aware of the measures for preventing TP.
An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.980More Less
Background : In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme.
Aim : The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services.
Setting : The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa.
Method : A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted.
Results : The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83%) and assurance (80%) domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model.
Conclusion : The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province.
Factors influencing weight control practices amongst the adolescent girls in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –4 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.952More Less
Background: The incidence of overweight is increasing amongst adolescents in many countries around the world. Healthy and unhealthy weight control practices are common amongst overweight and non-overweight adolescents.
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing weight control practices amongst adolescent girls.
Setting: The study was conducted at selected secondary schools of Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Non-probability, purposive sampling was used to select adolescents who are practicing weight control. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 participants. Data were analysed according to Tesch's open-coding method.
Results: This study revealed that adolescent girls are influenced by a variety of factors to control their weights. These included individual factors, such as body image dissatisfaction; family factors, caused by parental criticism about adolescent weight; and environmental factors, which contain peer group endorsement of dieting.
Conclusion: Adolescents are exposed to many unhealthy weight control practices, as a way of controlling excess weight. So it is of importance for healthcare providers to make them aware of healthy practices.
Self-reported impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers in Mutale Municipality, South Africa : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –5 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.976More Less
Background: The establishment of home-based care (HBC) programmes in developing countries has resulted in a shift of burden from hospitals to communities where palliative care is provided by voluntary home-based caregivers.
Aim: The study investigated the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers.
Setting: The study was conducted at HBC organisations located in Mutale Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey design was applied to investigate the impact of caregiving on voluntary home-based caregivers. The sample was comprised of (N = 190) home-based caregivers. Home-based caregivers provide care to people in need of care in their homes, such as orphans, the elderly and those suffering from chronic illnesses such as tuberculosis, HIV and/or AIDS, cancer and stroke. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data which were analysed descriptively using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, Version 20.
Results: The results showed that 101 (53.2%) participants were worried about their financial security because they were not registered as workers, whilst 74 (39.0%) participants were always worried about getting infection from their clients because they often do not have protective equipment.
Conclusion: Voluntary home-based caregivers have an important role in the provision of palliative care to people in their own homes, and therefore, the negative caregiving impact on the lives of caregivers may compromise the provision of quality palliative care.
The constraints and concerns regarding the size and/or shape of the second generation female condom : the narratives from the healthcare providers : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.1146More Less
Background: Despite the redesigning of the Reality condom (FC) to a new version of the second generation female condom commonly known as (FC2), the users are persistently constrained and concerned about the size and shape of this new version. Condom use is aligned to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 3, 5 and 6, which address gender equality, improving maternal health and preventing HIV and AIDS.
Aim: To explore and describe the constraints and concerns regarding the size and/or shape of the FC2.
Setting: The study was conducted at Tshwane health district in Gauteng province.
Methods: A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Individual in-depth interviews that yielded narratives in a designated health district in South Africa were conducted.
Results: From the analysis of narratives three specific themes emerged. Firstly, the specific theme was that the size and shape of FC2 is undesirable for the health care providers, which may lead women to contract HIV and AIDS. The second theme was that the size and shape of FC2 and female genitals makes insertion complicated and predisposes women to be vulnerable in sexual relationships. The third was that the size and shape of FC2 results in pain and discomfort during coitus, exposing women to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and AIDS.
Conclusions: The findings indicated the need for an evocative collaborative, interdisciplinary 'walk the talk' sexual health and AIDS education training programme for health care providers in primary health care facilities. Such programmes, if maintained, may assist health care providers to achieve the MDG 3, 5 and 6.
Evidence of application of the Basic Antenatal Care principles of good care and guidelines in pregnant women's antenatal care records : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.1016More Less
Background: Basic Antenatal Care (BANC) is an approach that is used in the public health institutions of South Africa to provide health care services to pregnant women. The approach was introduced as a quality improvement strategy based on the belief that good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) could reduce maternal and perinatal mortalities and improve maternal health.
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse pregnant women's ANC records for evidence suggesting that the BANC principles of good care and guidelines were being applied.
Setting: The study was conducted in the 12 primary health care clinics that were providing ANC services using the BANC approach in eThekwini district, KwaZulu-Natal.
Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative design was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through retrospective record review of 1200 maternity case records of the pregnant women who had attended for ANC services three or more times and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0.
Results: The majority of the processes detailed in the guidelines and principles of good care were evident in the records. However, several were missing or recorded in few reviews. These included the ANC plan, delivery plan, midwives' counter signatures on the cards, assessment for foetal congenital abnormalities, and consent for HIV testing.
Conclusion: The study identified evidence of incomplete application of the BANC principles of good care and guidelines in pregnant women's antenatal care records which indicated that the BANC approach was not being successfully implemented. Recommendations were made with regards to policy development, institutional management and practise, nursing education, and further research to assist in successful implementation of the BANC approach in line with the guidelines and principles of good care.
Factors contributing to men's reluctance to seek HIV counselling and testing at Primary Health Care facilities in Vhembe District of South Africa : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.996More Less
Background: Voluntary HIV antibody Counselling and Testing (HCT) is a cornerstone of HIV prevention in South Africa because it has the potential to prevent HIV transmission. The government of South Africa has for a long time been investing heavily in fighting the spread of HIV and/or AIDS. However, men rarely utilise this service.
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to the reluctance of men to seek HCT in the primary health facilities in Vhembe District.
Setting: The study was conducted at Vhembe District health offices in Limpopo, South Africa.
Methods: A qualitative research design, anchored on semi-structured interviews as a method of data collection, was used. Fifteen men working at Vhembe health offices were purposively sampled. Data were analysed using the TECHS's 8 steps method. The approval from Polokwane Provincial offices was guaranteed with participants being protected and respected throughout the study.
Results: The response rate per question was 100% with all 15 participants willing to answer all the raised questions, though with different views and opinions. The majority of the interviewees indicated that they were aware of HCT services. Stigma as a societal reaction to disease, governmental policies, and attitudinal factors made men refrain from seeking counselling and testing from public health facilities.
Conclusion: There was a high level of HCT awareness among men in Vhembe District. However, attitudinal and political barriers, stigma, and cultural practices such as circumcision were cited as the reasons for the low level utilisation of HCT services.
Factors contributing to the low uptake of medical male circumcision in Mutare Rural District, Zimbabwe : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.966More Less
Background: Medical male circumcision (MMC) has become a significant dimension of HIV prevention interventions, after the results of three randomised controlled trials in Uganda, South Africa and Kenya demonstrated that circumcision has a protective effect against contracting HIV of up to 60%. Following recommendations by the World Health Organization, Zimbabwe in 2009 adopted voluntary MMC as an additional HIV prevention strategy to the existing ABC behaviour change model.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is thus to investigate the factors contributing to the low uptake of MMC.
Methods: The study was a quantitative cross-sectional survey conducted in Mutare rural district, Zimbabwe. Questionnaires with open- and closed-ended questions were administered to the eligible respondents. The target population were male participants aged 15-29 who met the inclusion criteria. The households were systematically selected with a sample size of 234. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyse the data.
Results: Socioculturally, circumcised men are viewed as worthless (37%), shameful (30%) and are tainted as promiscuous (20%), psychological factors reported were infection and delayed healing (39%), being ashamed and dehumanised (58%), stigmatised and discriminated (40.2%) and fear of having an erection during treatment period (89.7%) whilst socio-economic factors were not having time, as it will take their time from work (58%) and complications may arise leading to spending money on treatment (84%).
Conclusion: Knowledge deficits regarding male medical circumcision lead to low uptake, education on male medical circumcision and its benefits. Comprehensive sexual health education should target men and dispel negative attitudes related to the use of health services.
Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.945More Less
Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.
Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.
Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.
Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed.
Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth).
Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.
Zero new HIV infections : mission impossible with current perceptions of young adults in Vhembe District regarding condom use : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.920More Less
Background: Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 6, target 6A focuses on halting and reversing the spread of HIV by 2015. South Africa is amongst the 189 countries that are involved in trying to meet the MDGs. In order to try and achieve this goal, South Africa, through its HIV and AIDS, STI and TB strategic plans has adopted the United Nations vision of 'Zeros', which include zero new HIV infections by the year 2015. One of the key interventions for achieving this is improvement in access to condoms.
Aim: This article reports on perceptions of Vhembe District young adults regarding condom use.
Setting: This study was conducted in one of the rural clinics in Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province: South Africa.
Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional design approach was followed. Data were collected using structured questionnaires administered to 372 young adults who came for healthcare services at one of the clinics in Vhembe District.
Results: The findings indicated that there is a relationship between positive perceptions toward condom use and actual condom use. People who have positive attitudes toward condoms are also more likely to use them. In contrast, people with a negative attitude towards condoms are less likely to use them during sexual intercourse. Negative attitudes of health care providers were found to be a barrier that prevents sexually active individuals to access condoms in primary health care facilities.
Conclusion: With current perceptions towards condom use, Zero new HIV infection will never be achieved. The researcher recommends development of strategies for promoting access and correct use of condoms.
Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.997More Less
Background: Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives.
Setting: The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini.
Methods: A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method.
Result: One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards.
Conclusion: Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical.
Beliefs and practices of diabetic patients in Vhembe district of Limpopo Province : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.949More Less
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition affecting over 18 million people worldwide. It can lead to debilitating complications and premature death if not effectively controlled. South Africa, like any sub-Saharan countries and the world at large, is no exception. The prevalence of diabetes among South African adults has increased by 50% from 2009 to date, and an increase of some 11 million new diabetes diagnoses is expected by the year 2020.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the beliefs and management practices of patients with DM in Vhembe district, Limpopo province.
Setting: The study was conducted at Vhembe district clinics.
Methods: A probability, purposive sampling was used to sample 100 diabetic patients. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 19.0. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, and percentages were used to summarise the data from the study.
Results: The majority of the respondents had poor management practice of feet care and annual eye examinations. Twenty four (24.0%) of the respondents believed that DM can be cured and 22 (22.0%) did not believe that diet helps in the management of DM.
Conclusion: The belief that DM is curable can have a negative effect as patients can quit taking treatment once the disease is under control. This happens irrespective of the national guidelines for the management of DM. Therefore, some strategies should be sought that could enhance the implementation of the guidelines in order to combat the disease.
An exploratory study of the need for curriculum review of Master of Public Health Degree at a Rural-based University in South Africa : original researchAuthor Takalani G. TshitanganoSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –5 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.993More Less
Background: Master of Public Health (MPH) training programmes were developed worldwide in response to the crisis in human resources for health.
Aim: To determine whether the MPH programme at the selected rural-based university in South Africa enabled students to achieve the MPH core competencies relevant for Lower Middle Income Countries.
Setting: The study was carried out at a rural-based University in South Africa. The target population was the 2011 first-year cohort of MPH students who by the beginning of 2014 had just completed their coursework.
Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive research design was adapted. Eighty-five students were randomly selected to participate in the study. A structured questionnaire comprising seven competency clusters was developed. The selected students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Only those students who signed consent forms participated in this study. The questionnaire was tested for construct validity and reliability using 10 students with similar characteristics to those sampled for the study. Microsoft Excel software was used to analyse the data descriptively in terms of frequency and percentages.
Results: The students were confident of their competencies regarding public health science skills. Amongst these were analytical assessment, communication, community and inter-sectorial competencies as well as ethics. However, the students lacked confidence in context-sensitive issues, planning and management, research and development, and leadership competencies. Yet the latter is the backbone of public health practice.
Conclusion and recommendation: There is a need for revamping public health curricula. In this respect, a follow-up study that builds a deeper understanding of the subject is needed.
Challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –5 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.923More Less
Background: Immunisation is the cornerstone of primary healthcare. Apart from the provision of safe water, immunisation remains the most cost-effective public health intervention currently available. Immunisation prevents infectious conditions that are debilitating, fatal and have the potential to cause huge public health burdens, both financially and socially, in South Africa.
Aim: To determine the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) at rural clinics in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.
Setting: The study was conducted in selected primary healthcare clinics of Capricorn District, Limpopo Province.
Methods: A qualitative explorative descriptive contextual research design was used to gather data related to the challenges faced by professional nurses when implementing EPI at rural clinics in Capricorn District.
Results: The findings revealed that professional nurses had knowledge of the programme, but that they experienced several challenges during implementation of EPI that included staff shortages and problems related to maintenance of the vaccines' potency.
Conclusions: The Department of Health as well as the nursing administration should monitor policies and guidelines, and especially maintenance of a cold chain for vaccines, to ensure that they are practised throughout Limpopo Province. The problem of staff shortages also needs to be addressed so that the EPI can achieve its targeted objectives.
Male partners' views of involvement in maternal healthcare services at Makhado Municipality clinics, Limpopo Province, South Africa : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –5 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.929More Less
Background: Male partners have a strong influence on pregnant partners' health and their access to care. Their involvement is critical in the delivery and uptake of maternal healthcare services and improving maternal and child health outcomes.
Aim: The study sought to determine male partners' views on their involvement in maternal healthcare services.
Setting: The Makhado Municipality's Kutama, Madombidzha and Vleifontein clinics.
Methods: A qualitative study design, which is exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature, was used. The population comprised 15 men whose partners had been pregnant within the last 2 years. A non-probability, purposive sampling procedure was used. Data were collected via in-depth individual interviews using a voice recorder and an interview schedule guide. Tesch's open coding method was used to analyse data.
Results: The findings revealed one major theme, namely that maternal health issues are viewed as a woman's domain; and three sub-themes: culture and participation in childbirth, male partners' employment status, and male partners' unwillingness to participate in maternal health issues.
Conclusions: The involvement of male partners in maternal healthcare services, and further research in promoting this activity, should be proposed to policymakers.
Challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6 : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –7 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.947More Less
Background: Despite progress made by other countries worldwide in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4, 5 and 6, South Africa is experiencing a challenge in attaining positive outcomes for these goals.
Objective and setting: To describe the challenges experienced by South Africa regarding the successful implementation of MDGs 4, 5 and 6.
Methods: An integrative literature review was used to identify and synthesise various streams of literature on the challenges experienced by South Africa in attaining MDGs 4, 5 and 6.
Results: The integrative review revealed the following themes: (1) interventions related to child mortality reduction, (2) implementation of maternal mortality reduction strategies, and (3) identified barriers to zero HIV and TB infections and management.
Conclusion: It is recommended that poverty relief mechanisms be intensified to improve the socio-economic status of women. There is a need for sectoral planning towards maternal health, and training of healthcare workers should emphasise the reduction of maternal deaths. Programmes addressing the reduction of maternal and child mortality rates, HIV, STIs and TB need to be put in place.
HIV-positive patients' perceptions of care received at a selected antiretroviral therapy clinic in Vhembe district, South Africa : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –6 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.926More Less
Background: Patients' experiences are a reflection of what has happened during the care process and, therefore, provide information about the performance of health care professional workers. They refer to the process of care provision at the antiretroviral therapy (ART) sites.
Aim and setting: This article explored the perceptions of HIV-positive patients of care received at the Gateway Clinic of the regional hospital that provides antiretroviral treatment in the Vhembe district.
Methods: A qualitative, explorative and descriptive design was used. A non-probability, convenient sampling method was used to select 20 HIV-positive patients who were above 18 years of age. In-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed through Tech's open coding method.
Results: One theme and two sub-themes emerged, namely positive experiences related to the environment and attitudes of health professionals, and negative experiences concerning the practices by health care providers.
Conclusion: Patients' perceptions of quality of, and satisfaction with, health care may affect health outcomes. Recommendations are made to consider, practice and strengthen the protocols, the standard operating procedures and the principles of infection control in the health facilities.
Strategies to sustain a quality improvement initiative in neonatal resuscitation : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –10 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.958More Less
Background: Many neonatal deaths can be prevented globally through effective resuscitation. South Africa (SA) committed towards attaining the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, SA's district hospitals have the highest early neonatal mortality rates. Modifiable and avoidable causes associated with patient-related, administrative and health care provider factors contribute to neonatal mortality. A quality improvement initiative in neonatal resuscitation could contribute towards decreasing neonatal mortality, thereby contributing towards the attainment of the MDG4.
Aim: The aim of this study was, (1) to explore and describe the existing situation regarding neonatal resuscitation in a district hospital, (2) to develop strategies to sustain a neonatal resuscitation quality improvement initiative and (3) to decrease neonatal mortality. Changes that occurred and the sustainability of strategies were evaluated.
Setting: A maternity section of a district hospital in South Africa.
Methods: The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model formed the theoretical framework for the study. The Problem Resolving Action Research model was applied and the study was conducted in three cycles. Purposive sampling was used for the quantitative and qualitative aspects of data collection. Data was analysed accordingly.
Results: The findings indicated that the strategies formulated and implemented to address factors related to neonatal resuscitation (training, equipment and stock, staff shortages, staff attitude, neonatal transport and protocols) had probable sustainability and contributed towards a reduction in neonatal mortality in the setting.
Conclusion: These strategies had the probability of sustainability and could potentially improve neonatal outcomes and reduce neonatal mortality to contribute toward South Africa's drive to attain the MDG4.
Formulating a return-to-work decision for employees with major depressive disorders : occupational therapists' experiences : original researchSource: African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine 8, pp 1 –5 (2016) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/phcfm.v8i2.954More Less
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is worldwide one of the most concerning health problems as it is associated with reduced work productivity and permanent disability. Occupational therapists are often called upon to make a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD in order to facilitate continued employment. Sustaining employment is in alignment with achieving the Millennium Development Goal 1: Eradicating extreme poverty, as it is known that people suffering from mental health disorders are frequently denied employment opportunities leading to reduced financial resources and therefore possible poverty.
Aim: This study described occupational therapists' experiences of formulating a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD. It formed part of a larger study.
Setting: Occupational therapists working in vocational rehabilitation or mental health in South Africa with a postgraduate qualification in vocational rehabilitation or mental health participated in the study.
Method: A qualitative research design was used. Two separate focus groups explored 11 occupational therapists' experiences of formulating a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD. Ethics clearance number: S34/2007.
Results: Seven themes emerged, which were, (1) the biographical profile of the employee, (2) point of view of employer, (3) point of view of employee, (4) point of view of occupational therapist, (5) declaring the employee as temporary incapacitated, (6) declaring the employee as permanently incapacitated and (7) employee's level of motivation.
Conclusion: Occupational therapists ought to have sound knowledge, skill, experience and the ability to collaborate with employees and employers in formulating a return-to-work decision.