South African Radiographer - latest Issue
Volume 53, Issue 2, 2015
Do authors publish to obtain funding as part of their conditions of employment or to share knowledge? : editorialAuthor Leonie MunroSource: South African Radiographer 53 (2015)More Less
The SAR is available in most countries. The local and international holdings of the SAR are currently in excess of 500. This means that material published in the SAR could have a high professional impact globally. We assume that authors who publish in the SAR do so to share their knowledge with a wider community of scholars and researchers.
Determination of creatinine level before administration of intravenous iodinated contrast media at two selected hospitals in Ghana : peer reviewed original articleSource: South African Radiographer 53, pp 8 –14 (2015)More Less
Background : In spite of the development and availability of newer contrast media with reduced and enhanced safety profiles, certain patients remain at risk for serious adverse reactions. Creatinine clearance is widely used to assess at-risk patients. This is an acceptable practice for estimating the glomerular filtration rate.
Aim : The aim of the study was to find out whether creatinine clearance is determined before administration of intravenous iodinated contrast medium (IICM) in some selected contrast-usage hospitals in Ghana.
Method : The research was a descriptive survey. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. Fifty-nine (59) questionnaires were sent to radiographers, radiologists and physicians from the respective imaging and urology departments of the selected hospitals. Fifty (n=50) completed questionnaires were received. Descriptive statistics was used to generate the results.
Results : The study achieved a response rate of 85%. Most of the respondents (n=41; 82%); did not enquire or determine creatinine clearance of their patients before referring or performing procedures that involved the use of IICM. Reasons given for not doing so were as follows: cost involved (n=16; 32%), delay in booking (n=15; 30%), and booking disruptions (n=4; 8%). The test was considered to be cumbersome by eight (16%) of the respondents, whereas ten (20%) indicated they did not determine it because they relied on other staff (radiographers/radiologists relied on referring physicians and vice versa).
Conclusion : Determination of creatinine clearance before IICM examinations by referring clinicians appeared lacking in the selected hospitals in Accra. The imaging departments also do not check their patients' creatinine clearance or levels before performing procedures. It is appropriate that the creatinine status is checked to avoid serious adverse reactions to at-risk patients. However, there are challenges in checking patients' creatinine status, such as delays in booking patients, booking disruptions, high cost, the cumbersome nature of the test and communication gap.
Optimum tube voltage for pelvic direct radiography : a phantom study : peer reviewed original articleSource: South African Radiographer 53, pp 15 –19 (2015)More Less
Pelvic radiography is a frequently performed radiological examination. Its average effective dose (E) is 0.53 mSv which is comparable to the annual per caput dose from diagnostic radiology, 0.6 mSv. However, existing studies on optimum tube potential for pelvic X-rays tend to be limited to screen-film and computed radiography. The purpose of this study was to determine the tube voltage for dose-image optimisation in pelvic direct radiography (DR). Fifty-four pelvic phantom images were acquired using 50-135 kV at 5 kV increments (three images taken at each kV level) and milliampere seconds determined by automatic exposure control. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and dose were measured for each image. Figure of merit (FOM) defined as the ratio of SNR2 to E was used to determine the optimum tube potential. The FOM indicates 135 kV is the optimum setting for pelvic DR. Using the European Commission tube voltage recommendation (75-90 kV) as a reference point, there was only a slight (5.56%) decrease of image quality in the femoral neck region at 135 kV. However, its E was 0.054 mSv. This appreciable dose reduction potential could be attributed to the improvement of detective quantum efficiency and image processing technology of the recent DR system.
Critiquing a research article as an evidence-based practice assessment strategy within a radiography training programme : peer reviewed opinion articleSource: South African Radiographer 53, pp 20 –24 (2015)More Less
Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been identified by the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA) as one of the professional capabilities required by entry-level medical radiation practice professionals seeking to qualify for registration. EBP is the process of meticulously analysing current research in order to provide the best patient care. Therefore, EBP allows for systematic advancement of skills and practise within the radiography profession in order to consistently ameliorate the quality of imaging, technique and care of the patient. Hence it is of utmost importance that students enrolled within a radiography programme should, upon graduation, be able to demonstrate this critical thinking capability.
Students within the second year of a four-year degree programme at Monash University in Australia are required to critique a peer-reviewed research paper as an EBP assessment strategy. Students are provided with a qualitative critiquing framework and a marking rubric as guidance. A review carried out by a second year radiography student focuses on a qualitative publication and critically assesses its relative merits according to the EBP assessment strategy.
On reflection, the student concluded that although an article is peer reviewed, it is important to perform one's own review in order to gain a sound understanding of the purpose, methodology and findings. In undertaking this assessment strategy, the student was exposed to the necessary skills required to appropriately evaluate published research including knowledge of mixed-methods approach and thematic analysis. Such skills and knowledge should allow new graduates to reach the required standards for registration.
Source: South African Radiographer 53, pp 25 –27 (2015)More Less
The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, or Pindborg tumour, is a rare benign neoplasm arising from epithelial tissue within the mandible or maxilla. Less than 1% of all odontogenic tumours are classified as Pindborg tumours. The aetiology is idiopathic. This case report explores this pathology as diagnosed on the right mandibular region in a female in her late twenties. The aetiology, epidemiology and radiographic appearance of a Pindborg tumour are discussed.