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Volume 38, Issue 2, 2016
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 1 –16 (2016)More Less
This is qualitative study with the objective to analyse motivation towards dance by comparing two teaching methodologies within the education context, depending on gender. The self-report technique was applied with 47 students (29 girls and 18 boys) aged 14 to 16 years (14.84±0.48) from a secondary school in Extremadura (Spain) to explore the reasons that engage them in dance classes during Physical Education (PE) classes. Twelve dance-teaching sessions of 50 minutes, distributed across two days a week, were presented to each group. Twenty (20) students received the lessons that applied the Direct Instruction Technique and 27 students received instruction by means of the creative inquiry technique. Self-reporting was applied at three different assessments (sessions 4, 8 and 12), of the intervention with both groups. The results show important gender differences in the students' motivation towards participation in dance in the PE context when different teaching techniques were used. This suggests that teachers may need to apply a different treatment depending on gender.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 17 –25 (2016)More Less
The purpose of the present study was to examine of the effects of upper body kinematics on the ball velocity at the impact phase of a tennis flat serve. 15 elite male tennis players were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 18.4±3.3 years, mean height 182.3±5.6cm, mean weight 72.2±7.9kg), of which five were from the Turkish National Team. Players performed flat tennis serves on a regulation indoor tennis court. Data were recorded digitally to computer hard drives on court using three Basler A602f cameras at 100Hz. The Radar gun (Sports Radar, Astro Products, CA), was used for velocity measurements of the tennis balls. The Spearman Rank Correlation procedure was used to determine the relationships between parameters and balls. Relationships between elbow angular velocity and trunk angular velocity, as well as between elbow angular velocity and wrist angular velocity were found. The ground reaction forces transmitted through the legs and trunk allowed for greater angular velocity of the elbow, which in turn provided a favourable advantage by affecting the wrist speed and ultimately, the ball speed.
Impact of one-day adventure-based experiential learning (AEL) programme on life effectiveness skills of adult learnersAuthor Hermanus J. BloemhoffSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 27 –35 (2016)More Less
Despite positive claims made by advocates of adventure-based experiential learning (AEL), sceptics could be concerned that such claims are overzealous. Due to the expansion of AEL programmes into management training in business schools and the corporate world, ongoing empirical investigations relating to the efficacy of AEL in the workplace is necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the developmental impact of a one-day AEL programme on the life effectiveness skills of adult learners in a business school. A one-day ropes course programme was offered to 140 adult learners from the business school. The Life Effectiveness Questionnaire, Version H (LEQ-H), served as measurement tool and it was administered as a pre- and post-test measurement. The overall post-test scores of the experimental group (n=140) were significantly higher (p=0.0001) than the post-test scores of the control group (n=126). The post-test scores of four dimensions differed significantly (p<0.05) from the post-test scores of the control group. The findings indicate the potential efficacy of an AEL course for the development of life effectiveness skills in adult learners. It demonstrates the necessity of ongoing research directed at principles underlying the application of particular methodologies and other programmatic factors to maximise efficacy.
Sport participation of immigrants : antecedents and consequences of organisational commitment and ethnic identity amongst Koreans in USASource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 37 –48 (2016)More Less
In spectating sports, many studies have observed the impact of ethnic identity. Regarding sport participation, however, questions still linger about its impact. Key to predicting the sport participation of an immigrant group are their ethnic identity and commitment to the sport organisation. The main purpose of this study was to see how the sport participation of immigrants is affected by ethnic identity and commitment to a sport organisation. Using self-administered questionnaires, the study surveyed a sample of 229 Korean immigrants in the greater Dallas area. The immigrants were conveniently recruited at soccer and softball tournaments hosted by ethnic sport organisations. The collected data were analysed by structural equation modelling. The results suggest that the organisational commitment of participants was affected by their event satisfaction and perceived benefits. As such, commitment affected their ethnic identity and influences their ethnic peers. The peer influences affected ethnic identity. Finally, ethnic identity had an impact on sport participation. This study suggests that an ethnic sport organisation should aim at providing a quality sport experience.
Prevalence and effect of developmental coordination disorder on learning-related skills of South African grade one childrenSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 49 –62 (2016)More Less
Physically awkward children face a host of difficulties, which include difficulties in the school environment. Therefore, it is important to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) early in a child's life to allow for proper and timely intervention and support. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of DCD and examine the relationship of the degree of motor difficulties on learning-related skills. This comparative study made use of quantitative data. Three hundred and forty-seven (N=347) Grade 1 children took part and were between the ages of five and eight years (mean age=6.58±0.4). There were 190 girls and 157 boys. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2 Test) was used to identify DCD. In addition, each participant was evaluated with the Aptitude Test for School Beginners (ASB). Learning-related skills of children with DCD were compared to those without DCD. The prevalence of DCD (severe motor difficulties) was 6% and the at-risk group constituted another 6%. Motor difficulties had a significant effect on five of the eight learning-related subtypes, namely reasoning, numerical skills, gestalt, coordination and memory. Children with DCD experienced more learning-related problems compared to their peers without DCD.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 63 –74 (2016)More Less
The importance of establishing how the elderly subjectively perceive their physical fitness has been studied so that future action plans may be established to improve their quality of life. The main goal of this research was to evaluate how Spanish people aged 65 years and over, perceive their level of physical fitness and the relationship this has with the different types of demands (established, latent, absent), for physical activity. Cross-sectional research was conducted involving face-to-face interviews using a standardised questionnaire and involving 907 elderly persons (male=428; female=479), aged over 65 years (74.12±6.55). The results suggest that the majority of the elderly perceived their fitness as good or very good, with this variable being most positively perceived among people who exercise, the males and the younger persons among those interviewed. However, nearly half of the participants perceived their physical fitness as being somewhat poor and considered that they should start participating in physical activity.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 75 –90 (2016)More Less
This study aimed to verify the network of contacts resulting from the collective behaviour of professional football teams through the centroid method and networks as well, thereby providing detailed information about the match to coaches and sport analysts. For this purpose, 999 collective attacking actions from two teams were analysed, including passes completed, passes received and crosses, involving a total of 2335 intra-team interactions (1160 passes and crosses performed and 1175 ball receptions). Amisco® software was used to characterise the collective behaviour of professional football teams. The results showed that the interaction of the centroid players in the offensive phase of the game occurred, preferably, through the formation of vertices that were connected by links, which were mainly orchestrated by the action of centroid players. It was concluded that the interactions of the professional football teams tended to occur preferentially on the offensive phase of the game, and the network of contacts was controlled, mainly, in ball possession, through passes performed in the central and lateral areas of the field. The herein presented findings may help coaches and sport scientists to understand better, how self-organisation emerges and how collective behaviour is orchestrated.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 91 –112 (2016)More Less
This innovative research on managing and marketing team sport events was completed for the first time at an international Cricket Sixes tournament held in South Africa (SA). A visitor survey was conducted at SuperSport Park in Centurion during the Global Softech Sixes Tournament in 2014. Finally, spectators, who were selected by applying a stratified random sampling method, returned 278 of the self-administered questionnaires. The analysis was performed in three stages, two factor analyses, a cluster analysis and an analysis of significant differences between the experience-based clusters of the cricket-sixes spectators. Different cricket spectator segments were identified based on the factors that are regarded by the spectators as important for a memorable experience. The research identified three distinct cricket spectator clusters, namely Occasional, Selective and Comprehensive experience seekers (OSC-typology). These clusters differ in terms of their motives, socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics. Based on the findings, an OSC-typology of cricket spectators is proposed. The research also confirms that the motives for spectators differ from sport to sport and even from one category to the next in the same type of sport. The same applies to aspects pertaining to memorable experience.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 113 –127 (2016)More Less
There tends to be an increase in scholarly literature regarding the leisure and sport participation of high school learners. However, in the South African context there are many black high school learners within townships who might not have access to leisure/recreation and sport facilities. "Black gold" (based on ethnicity and different cultural backgrounds), refers to black Grade 12 learners from a diverse group of South Africans. This study aimed to determine whether "black gold" leisure and sport participation during a previous holiday influenced their satisfaction with life. Questionnaires were used and 288 were completed. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on attitude towards and viewpoint on leisure and sport activities, as well as leisure and sport benefits after participation during a previous school holiday resulted in two factors. The highest means belonged to physical/mental health aspects and physical benefits. Satisfaction with life (SWL) was identified as a single factor. Positive medium to high correlations were achieved between the factors. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) revealed that statistical significant relationships exist between attitude towards and viewpoint on leisure and sport, leisure and sport benefits and satisfaction with life. Overall, a good model fit was achieved.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 129 –137 (2016)More Less
This study aimed to validate the 10x20m test for children aged 3 to 6 years in order to analyse cardiorespiratory capacity. 298 children, 159 boys (age=57.84±10.25 months) and 139 girls (age=56.68±11.00 months), that were randomly selected from three schools in the southeast of Spain participated in this study. The 10x20m test was designed to evaluate aerobic endurance. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was selected and used for convergent validity. The analysis of reliability using a test-retest found no significant differences (p≥0.05). As for convergent validity between the 10x20m test and 6MWT, a Pearson correlation coefficient of r= -0.657, (p<0.001) was found. The linear regression analysis yielded a R2=0.432. Regarding gender and age influences, no significant differences (p≥0.05) for any variable according to gender were found, while significant differences were found (p<0.001) in the 10x20m test between age sub-groups. The results showed that the 10x20m test obtained adequate parameters of reliability and validity in healthy children aged 3 to 6 years. Therefore, to assess cardiorespiratory endurance in preschool children this test is valid, reliable and easy-to-perform.
Representation of physical activity domains and sedentary behaviours in physical education textbooks : an image analysisSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 139 –152 (2016)More Less
Schools play an important role in promoting active lifestyles among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the representation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SBs) in the images of physical education (PE) textbooks. The initial sample was composed of 1 094 images from Spanish PE textbooks. A final sample of 291 images was randomly selected. They were analysed using a coding scheme. The PA domains and SBs, the gender and age of the characters, the time at which the activity occurred and the presence of disability were considered. Men were mainly predominant in the images, which showed leisure-time physical activities (LTPAs). A high percentage of images showed both genders performing SBs. Both the images representing LTPAs and SBs took place mainly after school. Images illustrating active commuting situations were negligible. Both disabled and the elderly groups were under represented. These findings highlight the need to reduce the normalisation of SBs in PE textbooks whilst also minimising differences in gender, age and disability categories in distinct PA contexts. Teachers should be made aware of the imbalance of images according to these categories in order to select textbooks that depict under-represented persons engaged in PA in multiple settings.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 153 –165 (2016)More Less
The primary aim of this research was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being relate to the propensity to use Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) in a sample of talented young athletes. A secondary aim was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being are related. This was a survey study with a quantitative research approach. South African Academy athletes at a high performance centre and competitive high school athletes from four private high schools participated in the survey. In the survey, two validated questionnaires (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ] and Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale), and a self-constructed questionnaire to establish the propensity of athletes to use PEDs were employed. 346 athletes (208 boys, 138 girls) aged M=16.0, SD=1.4 years participated. There was a significant correlation (r=0.32, p=0.00) between overall mindfulness and psychological well-being as measured by the FFMQ and Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale respectively. Two possible predictors of propensity to use PEDs were identified by means of logistic regression and cross tabulation. It is concluded that mindfulness and psychological well-being were inversely related to the propensity to use PEDs.
Effect of a low-intensity resistance exercise programme with blood flow restriction on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in middle-aged womenSource: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 167 –177 (2016)More Less
The effect of a 12-week low-intensity resistance exercise programme with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR) on growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in middle-aged women (52.7±7.8 years) was examined. Subjects (N=44) were randomly assigned to the following five groups: control group (CG; n=8), low-intensity (40% of 1RM) resistance exercise group (LI; n=9), high-intensity (70% of 1RM) resistance exercise group (HI; n=9), low-intensity (20% of 1RM) resistance exercise group with a 5% reduction in cuff circumference for blood flow restriction (LI-5% BFR; n=7), and a low-intensity (20% of 1RM) resistance exercise group with a 3% reduction in cuff circumference (LI-3% BFR; n=11). Subjects completed pre- and post-assessments of body weight, percentage body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, muscle strength, GH hormone and IGF-1 levels. A significant effect (p<0.05) was observed for waist-to-hip ratio, GH, IGF-1, biceps curls, triceps extensions, leg curls and leg extensions. A significant elevated GH level was observed in HI and LI-5% BFR groups when compared with the control group (p<0.05). A significant increase in IGF-1 levels was observed in the HI, LI-5% and LI-3% BFR groups when compared with the LI group (p<0.05). Portable cuffs reducing arm and thigh circumferences by 5% were effective in improving GH and IGF-1 levels in middle-aged women.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 179 –186 (2016)More Less
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships of body composition and anthropometric variables with the performance of young Iranian elite weightlifters. Forty-two subjects (age 16.21±3.22 years) volunteered to participate in the study. All subjects competed at the Iranian National Championship. Body composition and anthropometric variables including lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (%BF), height, shoulder circumference, chest circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), as well as the performance of the weightlifters (snatch; clean & jerk; front squat; back squat), were measured. The results showed a strong correlation between LBM and the performance of the weightlifters (p≤0.001). Moderate correlations between the remaining body composition variables and the performance of the weightlifters were obtained. However, low negative correlations were found between the performance of the weightlifters and the %BF and WHR values. It can be concluded that there was a relationship between LBM and weightlifting performance. However, weak negative relationships existed among %BF and WHR with the performance of weightlifters. Therefore, LBM was the major determinant in weightlifting, while %BF played a very small role in the determination of weightlifting performance.
Source: South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation 38, pp 187 –200 (2016)More Less
Football in South Africa (SA) has enjoyed significant commercial growth in recent years. No research has been conducted on the properties of fan engagement of South African football fans. In this study, the reliability and validity of the Fan Engagement Scale (FES) in a context of South African football fans were explored. Further, the potential of fan engagement as a predictor of positive consumer behaviours (match attendance and merchandise expenditure) was evaluated. Participants were 806 football fans who support various teams in the Premier Soccer League (PSL). Information was obtained through self-report measures that participants completed. The research was conducted at stadiums during football matches. A cross-sectional, quantitative research design was implemented. Structural equation modelling revealed a reliable and valid three-factor structure for the FES. The structural paths between fan engagement and match attendance, as well as fan engagement and expenditure on team merchandise, were established. The results strengthen the theory of fan engagement, which flows from customer engagement theory by providing contextual literature specific to South African football fans. A case in terms of the need for focused fan engagement strategies to further promote the industry was put forward and a number of strategies were proposed.