Journal of Public Administration - Volume 38, Issue 2, 2003
Volumes & issues
Volume 38, Issue 2, 2003
Source: Journal of Public Administration 38, pp 66 –84 (2003)More Less
There has been a tendency among practitioners in the Political Science and Public Administration / Management fields to jealously guard their respective academic domains; and to be often extremely sensitive to a perceived dividing line that separates public policy analysis from foreign policy analysis, arguably to the ultimate detriment of legitimate scientific enquiry.
This article seeks to demonstrate that there is a grey area, with particular reference to foreign (public) policy, that ought to unite, rather than divide, the Political Scientist and the Public Administration Scientist; and that an analysis of foreign policy is a legitimate pursuit of the Public Administration Scientist, whether in regard to the decision making process, the implementation of policy or its perceived usefulness or overall effectiveness.
Author M.J. MafunisaSource: Journal of Public Administration 38, pp 85 –101 (2003)More Less
This paper addresses the question of whether senior public servants should be political or non-political when performing their duties. This debate has long been a central concern in the literature of United States of America from the beginning of public administration, and remains so to this day. It is also the case in South Africa, especially after the ANC assumed power in 1994. The ANC has deployed some of its members to key public service positions with a view of promoting loyalty and service delivery. This paper addresses this issue in the context of the politics-administration dichotomy. Models, which describe and analyse the relationship between politics and administration are identified. These models are dichotomy model / depoliticized bureaucracy, politicized bureaucracy model, model of complementarity, the British permanent model and the American hybrid model. This paper recognizes a need for "political appointments" (politicized bureaucracy) within the public service due to a threat, real or perceived, of political sabotage by disloyal incumbents of the previous dispensation. After a threat of political sabotage diminishes the government should then introduce the complementarity model, with more emphasis on the principle of merit, which is emphasized in the British permanent model and to a certain extent, the American hybrid model. State institutions supporting constitutional democracy should act independently against corrupt public functionaries who abuse "political appointments" for their own personal purposes.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 38, pp 102 –117 (2003)More Less
Researchers at the University of the Free State have conducted a study investigating indigent policies. The need for this research emanated from a prior research project investigating the non-payment for municipal services and the resulting socio-economic impact. A national base-line survey was conducted among 1 599 households. Concurrently, in-depth interviews were held with finance managers. The core finding was that in most cases poverty is the main cause of non-payment.
Central Government has acknowledged this fact and as a mitigating step, has introduced an unconditional equitable share grant that is allocated to local government. However, as reflected during workshop consultation with government and civil society, many municipalities struggle with the formulation and implementation of an indigent policy that operationalises the equitable share grant. Four case study sites were selected and a multi-pronged qualitative approach was employed.
With regard to the formulation of the policy, findings indicate that the unconditional nature of the equitable share grant, a need for socio-economic research and the qualifying criteria for allocation, unemployment, consultation and communication all impede this process. Stumbling blocks in respect of implementation of policy are the processes of identifying the poor, and verifying applications. Furthermore, issues of concern are monitoring the process and also arrears in account payments. The output of the study is a strategy outlining guidelines for the design and implementation of the policy and suggestions on how best to meet the service delivery needs of the poor.
Transformation of public sector auditing in southern African countries : comparing the independence and accountability of supreme audit institutionsSource: Journal of Public Administration 38, pp 118 –132 (2003)More Less
Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs), such as auditors-general, are crucial in ensuring that an unbroken chain of accountability exists between the government and its agencies, and the parliament. Within the context of southern Africa, the SAIs have, and continue to undergo transformation in order to enhance their independence and accountability standards. The purpose of this study is to examine the present state of transformation of southern African SAIs by comparing their enabling legislation with regard to powers, independence, funding, and mandate. Also compared are the accountability mechanisms available to parliament in terms of the SAI's appointment, tenure, and oversight. The comparison uses a framework that contains twenty-nine key issues necessary for enhancing the independence and accountability of SAIs. Where such issues were found not addressed in the enabling legislation of the SAI, this represented a weakness within the legislation, thereby highlighting opportunities for reform. Overall, the findings for the eight southern African SAIs examined show a number of key issues of accountability and independence that could be strengthened through legislative reform.
Author Odd-Helge FjeldstadSource: Journal of Public Administration 38, pp 133 –149 (2003)More Less
Tanzania is currently implementing local government reform aimed at improving public service delivery. An important component of the reform is increasing the fiscal autonomy of local authorities. This policy is encouraged and partly initiated by the donor community. The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which we can expect that increased fiscal autonomy will improve the efficiency and responsiveness of the public sector. The paper concludes that it is unrealistic to expect that the present administration in many local authorities in Tanzania have adequate capacity and the required integrity to manage increased fiscal autonomy. In fact, there is a real danger that, in the absence of substantial restructuring of the current tax system combined with capacity building and improved integrity, increased autonomy will increase mismanagement and corruption.
Author Duke Kent-BrownSource: Journal of Public Administration 38, pp 150 –154 (2003)More Less
The essential components of any human right anywhere in the world are liberty and equality; yet different interpretations of such rights occur because not everyone agrees about how freedom and equality ought to be measured or applied. Therefore, assuming it is possible to reach universal agreement on human rights it is necessary to first achieve mutual understanding and concurrence on the meaning of basic concepts such as freedom and equality. It is a romantic notion that all men are born free but nevertheless a notion which probably ought to be nurtured in the hope that the ideal expressed will one day become the norm.
Local Government Financing and Development in South Africa, P.S. Reddy, D. Sing, S. Moodley : book reviewSource: Journal of Public Administration 38 (2003)More Less
The publication consists of 13 chapters by 14 different contributors divided into two parts. Part A consists of 10 chapters dealing with the Southern African experience of inter alia local government financing, developmental issues, budgeting, accountability and auditing, ethics and corruption and municipal partnerships. Part B consists of three chapters dealing with local government issues in Botswana, Zambia and Swaziland. The publication also contains a subject index.