Journal of Public Administration - Volume 43, Issue 2, 2008
Volumes & issues
Volume 43, Issue 2, 2008
Author Y. OlumSource: Journal of Public Administration 43, pp 93 –106 (2008)More Less
The Government of Uganda has decentralised health services since 1993. Despite the positive achievements as a result of this reform process compared to the period during centralisation, the indicators are not impressive. Several challenges still remain. These challenges include: the nature of the health care strategy; access and utilisation of health facilities; funding; ineffective integration of top-down or vertical donor programmes into decentralised systems; weak management; inadequate planning; lack of personnel; un-coordinated distribution of power between different levels of government; poor accountability; and, the health sector reforms overriding the essential differences between private and public sector management. The article, therefore, concludes that these challenges, if not addressed by policy-makers and implementers alike, will easily derail the decentralised health sector reform in the long term. The actors can only achieve the ultimate desired decentralised health objectives if they view the relationship between decentralisation and other elements of health system reform in a holistic manner.
Citizen participation in local government and the process of rural development : the rhetoric and reality in UgandaSource: Journal of Public Administration 43, pp 107 –123 (2008)More Less
Citizen participation is acknowledged in the governance and development discourse, as a mechanism for building capacity in the rural poor in the quest for poverty reduction and good governance. This article synthesizes recent studies on Uganda's decentralised system of local governance and examines the extent to which participation in local programmes has enhanced the process of rural development. It is argued that, while some participatory framework exists as a result of devolving some powers and functions to local government units, the structures and processes remain feeble and do not support a genuinely participatory system. This is mainly due to the excessive central government whims and the local elite capture. While the central and donor-conceived plans may still be necessary for the rural poor, such strategies should be integrated into the rural schemes to enable freedom of choice, action and decision in order to attain strong local ownership and empowerment. This calls for political will from the central government leaders and the need to strengthen capacity for the local forces and social groups to infiltrate the hierarchies of officialdom associated with the local bureaucracies.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 43, pp 124 –140 (2008)More Less
In recent years, globalisation has seen global civil society institutions at different levels getting involved in politics of nation states. Observance of human rights, good governance and the upholding of democratic principles have been areas of emphasis by global civil society where nations of the world have made concerted efforts to uphold these. Zimbabwe has been one of the African countries that have attracted international attention on the above issues of governance. Global, regional and national civil society groups have been instrumental in calling for improved citizen participation in governance processes and repealing some sections of existing legislation guiding citizen participation.
Author E.O.C. IjeomaSource: Journal of Public Administration 43, pp 141 –159 (2008)More Less
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a concerted effort by Africa's political leaders to develop a comprehensive and integrated strategic policy framework aimed at raising the current levels of socioeconomic development and reduces the high levels of poverty across Africa. The article examines the need for establishing the NEPAD and further investigates the level of leadership challenges facing the initiative. The article also explored some strategies that could assist in the implementation of the NEPAD's world acclaimed poverty eradication initiatives. It provides possible benchmarks that will assist the NEPAD implementation process to conform to acceptable codes and standards. However, the Comparative Leadership and Governance challenges faced by the Nigerian and South African governments are examined to identify relevant leadership qualities of the two countries. In conclusion, the article identifies progress made with the NEPAD initiative as a result of the leadership roles of Nigeria and South Africa. It encourages a continued collaboration between the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Republic of South Africa with the aim of achieving a more focused and result-oriented NEPAD initiative which could secure sustainable socio-economic development in Africa now and in the future.
Are they there yet? The independence of central banks from their governments in five selected countries in the Southern African Development Community (SADC)Author B. WesselsSource: Journal of Public Administration 43, pp 160 –173 (2008)More Less
Good governance and best practices as important institutional prerequisites feature prominently in the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and documents that were developed to enhance the social and economic development of Africa and its regions, such as the Southern African Development Community (SADC). In fact, the fourteen countries in the SADC endeavour to create an economic and monetary union by 2016. This implies inter alia the establishment of a respected and independent regional central bank, characterised by good governance, as one of the key pillars of the envisaged monetary union. Since member central banks will have to comply with the appropriate criteria for best practice and independence, the question arises as to their eligibility in this regard. This article analyses the independence from their governments of five such central banks, namely Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola and Tanzania. Except for Tanzania, the results point towards a clear lack of independence in the majority of other cases and signify a pressing need to thoroughly revise the statutes of the relevant central banks.
Source: Journal of Public Administration 43, pp 174 –188 (2008)More Less
Evaluation is a modern term for a practice that dates back to antiquity. It has an international, transnational and global dimension. The elasticity of evaluation implies that evaluation is carried out by governments in different countries covering a wide range of activities. The diversity of evaluands, approaches, influences and practices hold important lessons for countries contemplating to adopt the evaluation technique. This article sketches the state of evaluation in 21 countries across four continents, tabulating various characteristics for comparison purposes. It locates each within a decade called first-, second- and third-wave, referring to when evaluation was first adopted in that country. Some key features are discussed, including globalisation of evaluation; factors that influenced its adoption; location of evaluation jurisdiction - push-pull mechanisms; education, training, professionalisation and supply of expertise; approaches to adoption; utilisation; and prospects. The role of the African Evaluation Association and factors militating against establishing more effective evaluation systems in developing countries, particularly in Africa, are briefly examined.