oa CME : Your SA Journal of CPD - HIV and childhood cancer - : main article

Volume 28, Issue 7
  • ISSN : 0256-2170



HIV-related immunosuppression increases the incidence of certain forms of cancer, and HIV infection and its co-morbidities such as TB have made it more difficult to treat incidental malignancies. The HIV-related malignancies (HIVRM) include AIDS-defining cancers and HIV-associated neoplasms. The AIDS-defining cancers are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and B-cell lymphomas (including primary CNS lymphoma), all of which are defined as WHO stage IV or CDC category C conditions. The HIV-associated neoplasms include leiomyosarcoma (a rare smooth-muscle tumour defined as CDC category B) and mixed-cellularity Hodgkin's lymphoma (not listed by WHO or CDC). They are all the result of viral transformation of DNA in host cells, by human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8) in the case of Kaposi's sarcoma and by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the others. While these tumours all occur in HIV-negative patients, the incidence of B-cell lymphoma shows a modest increase and the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma increases tenfold or more in the presence of HIV infection. The number of incidental malignancies occurring in HIV-positive children rises as the prevalence of HIV increases in the population. This is a function of both an increase in the number of susceptible individuals and increased survival of this cohort as the number of children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error