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- Volume 24, Issue 2, 2011
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition - Volume 24, Issue 2, 2011
Volumes & issues
Volume 24, Issue 2, 2011
Continuing Professional Development : Activity for Dietitians : SAJCN CPD activity No 78 and 79 - 2011 : CPD questionnaireSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24 (2011)More Less
Author Demetre LabadariosSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24 (2011)More Less
Service delivery, in general, is currently one of the most prominent national issues. It has attracted intense debate among politicians, and continues to cause pubic unrest and discontent. In relation to health, a recent snap poll amongst healthcare professionals, drawn from the private sector and national and provincial government, indicates that government is expected to play a leading role in setting uniform national health-sector quality standards, and in facilitating healthcare integration.
Author Arina PrinsSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 59 –60 (2011)More Less
Probiotics are the subject of continued and intense investigation. Recommendations in the lay media for the use of probiotics are multiple and, more often than not, not evidence based. For many years, the advantages of probiotics such as bifidobacteria and Lactobasillus acidophilus have been stated on the labels of fermented dairy products. This was, however, more anecdotal than based on sound research. The fact that, in 2010, more than 28% of the 5 466 publications on this topic on Pubmed were reviews, supports the opinion that insufficient original research is being conducted.
Probiotics, with special emphasis on their role in the management of irritable bowel syndrome : reviewSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 63 –73 (2011)More Less
Probiotics are live microorganisms, and when administered in adequate amounts, bestow beneficial effects on the host. The therapeutic and preventative application of probiotics in several disorders is receiving increasing attention, and this is especially true when gastrointestinal microbiota is thought to be involved in their pathogenesis, as in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Given the increasingly widespread use of probiotics, a thorough understanding of their risks and benefits is important. The purpose of this review is to update healthcare professionals on current probiotic information, and provide an overview of probiotic treatment approaches, with special emphasis on IBS.
The impact of a nutrition programme on the dietary intake patterns of primary school children : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 75 –81 (2011)More Less
Objective: The aim of this study was to improve the dietary intake patterns and food choices of children aged 9-13 years in a periurban community.
Methods: Two schools were randomly selected from within this periurban community. A nutrition education programme was implemented over one school term, with the testing of nutrition knowledge occurring pre- and post-intervention, and in the long term, with the experimental group only. A validated 24-hour recall questionnaire was completed pre- and post-intervention by both the control (n = 91) and experimental groups (n = 81), and in the long term, by the experimental group. Food models were used to assist in the estimation of portion sizes and identification of food items. The questionnaire was analysed using the computer software programme FoodFinder 3, with means and standard deviations calculated for macro- and micronutrients, and comparisons made with dietary reference intakes for specific age groups. A list was drawn up of the 20 most commonly consumed food items, based on weights consumed. Paired t-tests were conducted to assess significance in dietary intake and food choices after the intervention. Correlations between knowledge and dietary choices were determined among the experimental group in the long-term measurements.
Results: Correlations linked protein intake to knowledge of proteins, and vitamin C intake to knowledge of fruit and vegetables. Fruit and vegetable intake remained very low. Refined sugars and fat were still consumed among the experimental group. The diet for both groups was based on carbohydrates.
Conclusions: The objective of changing the dietary intake patterns of the children was not achieved. The intake of legumes, fruit and vegetables remained low. The lack of variety in intake results in a diet that does not meet the daily requirements of children.
Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient nutriture among children in less-resourced areas : a randomised controlled intervention in Kabarole district, western Uganda : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 83 –88 (2011)More Less
Objective: To determine whether nutrition education targeting the child-feeding practices of low-income rural caregivers will reduce anaemia and improve vitamin A nutriture of the young children in their care.
Design: A controlled intervention trial, based on experiential learning theory. Forty-six women completed a nine-session nutrition education programme, while controls (n = 43) concurrently engaged in sewing classes.
Setting: Two rural farming communities in the Kabarole district, western Uganda.
Subjects: Less literate, low-income rural female caregivers and the children in their care (6-48 months).
Outcome measures: Caregivers' child-feeding practices and the children's nutritional status were assessed at baseline, one month after intervention (Follow-up 1) and one year from baseline (Follow-up 2).
Results: Caregivers in the intervention group reported improved child snacking patterns, food-selection practices, meal adequacy, and food variety. Children in the intervention group recorded lower haemoglobin levels at baseline (9.86 vs. 10.70 g/dl) and caught up with controls at Follow-up 1 (10.06 vs. 10.78 g/dl). However, changes were not sustained. Mean retinol-binding protein improved from 0.68 μmol/l (95% CI: 0.57-0.78) to 0.91 μmol/l (95% CI: 0.78-1.03) among intervention children, but remained approximately the same in controls. Vitamin A nutriture was influenced by infections.
Conclusion: Nutrition education significantly improved feeding practices and children's nutritional status. The effectiveness and sustainability of this programme can be enhanced if nutrition education is integrated into other food-production and public health programmes.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 90 –98 (2011)More Less
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the current nutrition staffing profile of the Integrated Nutrition Programme (INP) in Department of Health in the Western Cape, and establish whether it is adequate to meet the objectives of the INP.
Method: Self-administered questionnaires compiled in English were used as the main data collection instrument for nutrition staff in districts and at hospitals (n = 647). Eight individual questionnaires, one per staff category, were developed and utilised in the study.
Results: Foodservice workers were the largest group of nutrition personnel (n = 509; 79%), followed by dietitians (n = 64; 10%), managers (n = 31; 5%), auxiliary workers (n = 28; 4%), and administrative workers (n = 15; 2%). Sixty-two per cent of the nutrition workforce was located in urban areas and 38% in rural districts. Hospital and district dietitians experienced common problems, as well as specific differences. Regarding problems, both categories referred to limited resources, inadequate number of available posts, and lack of acknowledgement and support from administrative and supply chain management. District dietitians were also hampered by lack of space for consultations, poor referrals from doctors, insufficient posts for nutrition advisers, and difficulty in communicating with Xhosa-speaking patients. Hospital dietitians were hampered by insufficient interaction with district dietitians and lack of dietitians for specialised units. They also mentioned that poor salaries were affecting morale.
Conclusion: Recommendations such as additional posts for dietitians, improved conditions of service and salaries, increased advocacy for nutrition, and a number of human resources recommendations were made, and should be considered if the INP objectives are to be met.
Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school children in a low-income informal settlement in the Vaal region : original researchSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 99 –104 (2011)More Less
Background: The objective of this study was to examine growth indicators, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy primary school children.
Method: The respondents in this study included a convenience sample of 97 primary school children aged 6-13 years from a selected school. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) and three 24-hour recall questionnaires were completed for each child. Registered nurses drew blood from the vena cephalica of seated children after an eight-hour fast.
Results: The results of this study indicated that stunting, underweight and thinness were prevalent in this group of children. The prevalence rate for stunting (12.5%) was lower than the national prevalence rate of 20%, whereas the prevalence rate for underweight (15.1%) was higher than the national prevalence rate of 10%. Overweight was prevalent in only 1% of the sample, and more so in boys (2.3%) than girls (0%). None of the children in this study were obese. Serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were within the normal range. However, the mean serum LDL cholesterol levels were very high. The total dietary fat intakes showed significant relationships with total dietary cholesterol (r = 0.324, p-value = 0.001), linolenic acid (r = 0.605, p-value < 0.0001) and linoleic acid (r = 0.831, p-value < 0.0001) intakes.
Conclusion: In this poor community the dietary intake patterns showed a balanced macronutrient intake, despite a low energy intake, when compared with the estimated average requirements. The low energy intake was reflected in the prevalence of stunting, underweight and thinness, with a very low prevalence of overweight and no obesity. Furthermore, most of the serum lipid profiles reflected a low risk of these children acquiring CVD.
Author T. AckerbergSource: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24, pp 107 –108 (2011)More Less
The patient, a 55-year-old male, was admitted to hospital on 28 September 2010 with a known diagnosis of cancer of the larynx. The patient, who underwent a total laryngectomy on 13 October, had a tracheostomy inserted previously. Prior to the surgery the patient was consuming a soft diet and oral supplementation drinks. He had no previous history of any other illnesses.
Source: South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 24 (2011)More Less