SA Journal of Radiology - Volume 15, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 15, Issue 1, 2011
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 15, pp 4 –5 (2011)More Less
The rare condition of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is presented here, unusually, in a 54-year-old woman. IGM mimics breast carcinoma and further differentials include tuberculosis and fungal infections of the breast together with other chronic granulomatous conditions. Of note is its characteristic ultrasound features that can suggest the diagnosis. Diagnosis is made by core biopsy and histology. Patients have been shown to respond to steroid and other immunosuppressive therapy, with surgical excision reserved for those whose condition is recurrent and unresponsive to medical treatment.
Imaging features of a rare case of scapuloiliac dysostosis (Kosenow syndrome) in an ambulatory child : case reportSource: SA Journal of Radiology 15, pp 6 –7 (2011)More Less
Scapuloiliac dysostosis, also known as pelvis-shoulder dysplasia and Kosenow syndrome, is a rare skeletal dysplasia described first by Kosenow et al. in 1970. The main components of the syndrome are varying degrees of bilateral iliac and scapular hypoplasia. Various other skeletal abnormalities including exaggerated lumbar lordosis, and clavicular, vertebral, rib and long bone anomalies and extra-skeletal abnormalities, most commonly those of eye and ear, have also been reported. We report the plain radiography, CT and MRI findings of an interesting case of the syndrome.
Author Aadil AhmedSource: SA Journal of Radiology 15 (2011)More Less
Images of a case of unilateral choanal atresia diagnosed in a 35-year-old woman are presented. This is an uncommon diagnosis in an adult patient, and a less frequently encountered form of the condition. In more than 90% of cases of choanal atresia, the abnormality is partly or completely osseous; pure membranous atresia is rare. It is unilateral in 50 - 60% of cases, and more than 75% are associated with syndromes and systemic anomalies.
Author Harriet EtheredgeSource: SA Journal of Radiology 15, pp 10 –13 (2011)More Less
The field of radiography in South Africa is complex and presents a multitude of ethical issues. The discipline is often regarded as a supporting function in the healthcare chain, and a stepping-stone in the diagnostic process. This status of the discipline seems to have left many radiographers in a position of substantial confusion. In the course of numerous bioethics presentations for radiographers in South Africa, several ethical and legal issues have recurrently come to my attention. This article aims to address some of these issues and to offer ethically and legally acceptable solutions. The proposed solutions are not absolute - they are based on personal discussions and experiences - and their practicability needs to be scrutinised. Consequently, this article should be seen as a starting point only.
Complications, disease profile and histological yield from percutaneous renal biopsy under real-time US guidance : a retrospective analysis : review articleSource: SA Journal of Radiology 15, pp 14 –16 (2011)More Less
Objective. The objective of the study was to evaluate (i) the technique used at Universitas Hospital in comparison with other international centres also performing renal biopsies, (ii) the disease profile in patients undergoing renal biopsies, (iii) the complications experienced during and/or after the procedure, and (iv) the histological yield of the biopsies (amount of nephrons per biopsy taken) using this technique.
Design. A retrospective descriptive analysis of all patients who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy under ultrasound (US) guidance at the Interventional Radiology Unit, Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein, was undertaken for the period 1 January 2003 - 31 December 2008. Data obtained from the patients' files and histology reports were statistically analysed.
Results. A total of 112 patients qualified for inclusion in the study, all of whom had proof of renal failure and then had percutaneous renal biopsy performed under US guidance. The histology was diagnostic in 111 (99.1%) of the cases, with more than 5 nephrons present in 105 (93.5%) of the cases. Minor complications were found in 29 (25.8%) of the patients, but no major complications were noted. Primary renal disease was found in 67 (59.8%) of patients, and the renal pathology and failure in 45 (40.2%) of the patients were shown histologically to be owing to systemic disease.
Conclusion. The technique utilised for performing percutaneous renal biopsy under US guidance at the Interventional Radiology Unit was shown to be safe, with a diagnostic histological yield comparable with international standards. A small majority or patients suffered primary renal disease in comparison with renal failure owing to systemic illness.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 15, pp 18 –19 (2011)More Less
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) was first reported in 1894, but described by Gorlin and Goltz in 1960 as a distinct entity consisting of ectodermal and mesodermal abnormalities. It is an hereditary autosomal dominant disease with a prevalence estimated in various studies to be between 1/57 000 and 1/256 000, and a male:female ratio of 1:1. We describe in brief the important radiological features of an accidentally detected case of Gorlin syndrome in the form of a pictorial interlude.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 15, pp 20 –24 (2011)More Less
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED), or progressive diaphyseal dysplasia, is a rare sclerosing dysplasia of which 250 cases have been described in the English literature. The disease affects one in a million people and is autosomal dominant with variable penetrance. It was initially described by Cockayne in 1920; Camurati was the first to suggest its hereditary nature in 1922. A single case of muscular wasting and marked bone involvement was reported by Engelmann in 1929. As the name suggests, there is progressive hyperostosis and predominant involvement of the diaphyses.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 15, pp 26 –27 (2011)More Less
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that may present with cyanosis, cardiac failure and failure to thrive in infancy. TAPVR type 1 has a typical radiographic appearance of the heart termed the snowman. We present a case of an infant with TAPVR type 1 with injuries in keeping with non-accidental injury (NAI) to highlight that children with chronic diseases are at greater risk of this kind of injury and that radiographic evaluation of the chest in cardiac disease plays a role beyond demonstrating the heart and vasculature of the chest.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 15 (2011)More Less
Please refer to page 125 of the December 2010 issue of the SAJR (http://www.sajr.org.za/index.php/sajr/article/view/541/412) for the presentation details. We congratulate Dr Himal Gajjar (Schnetler, Corbett and Partners, Cape Town) for a precise and detailed diagnosis, for which he receives an award of R1 000 from the RSSA. Drs Misser and Mercouris elaborate below on the condition and its radiological signs.
Source: SA Journal of Radiology 15 (2011)More Less
A 39-year-old man was referred from a rural hospital. On examination, he had a new onset left hemiplegia, left gaze palsy and decreased level of consciousness. Prior to the acute deterioration, he had shown progressive decline in his cognitive functioning. He was known to be HIV-positive with a CD4 count of 19. He was not on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) at the time of admission. Two years earlier, he had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and had completed his prescribed treatment.