*This paper was read at the Medical Congress held at Cape Town in September 1949. I have drawn attention to the fact that surgeons and gynaecologists often do not give the ovary the surgical attention it merits in cases of oophoritis and perioophoritis usually following an infection from an intraabdominal source as opposed to an extra-abdominal source, appendicitis being a common cause of such a condition, whether the ovary has become poly-microcystic, solitary cystic, or solid, the result of fibrosis. Comparison is made with somewhat similar conditions in the testis and the vulnerability to infection of the ovaries, situated as they are, is stressed. Reference is made to an abstract of an article by three Argentinian colleagues dealing with wedge-shaped resection of ovaries in cases of dysmenorrhoea. The internal blood supply of the ovaries as shown by arteriography are descriptionbed and microscopical findings of such ovarian pathology are descriptionbed, a number of photomicrographs being presented in the Scientific Exhibits Section.