1. Malnutrition in the Native child is discussed with special reference to the diet in the Transkei. 2. In view of the nature of the diet and other factors it is considered that the Native child suffers from a multiple malnutritional condition which includes a fat and a mineral deficiency. 3. It is considered that degrees of malnutrition exist both in the body generally and locally in individual tissues: that the average malnourished child and its tissues exist in a balanced imperfectly functioning malnourished state; that under stress its tissues may break down locally or generally throughout the body; that a deficiency of many factors may be implicated in such a breakdown. 4. The similarity between the mild cases of malnutrition in the Native child and pink disease in the European child is discussed in relation to possible similar aetiological factors, particularly a mineral deficiency. 5. This paper suggests a line of treatment based on multiple replacement therapy. 6. The effects of the summation from generation to generation of malnutrition in mammals with a long gestational period is discussed in connexion with its medical implications in man.