oa Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia - Intraoperative echocardiography assessment of left and right ventricular function : refresher course

Volume 17, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 2220-1181
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1173



Over the past 25 years, echocardiography technology has improved tremendously and intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) has become the gold standard cardiac monitor and diagnostic tool. Although there is limited scientific evidence to substantiate this belief, there is a perception that intraoperative TOE provides valuable information that significantly influences clinical management and improves patient outcome. Several investigators have documented its benefits in the critically ill patient and during complex cardiovascular surgery. Two recent retrospective analyses related to alterations during routine cardiac surgery from intraoperative TOE have also suggested its cost effectiveness.

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