Medical Technology SA - Volume 27, Issue 2, 2013
Volume 27, Issue 2, 2013
Changes in CD4 counts, CD8 counts and viral loads in HIV infected individuals on a herbal supplement : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 27, pp 6 –12 (2013)More Less
Objective : Studies on the success of antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy in improving the quality of life in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals has been extensively performed and published. However, alternate or supplementary herbal therapies are preferred by some HIV infected individuals. The aim of this study was to observe the change in the immune status of HIV infected patients that were on the herbal supplement Inochi New Medicine immune booster.
Methods : This study involved 131 HIV infected individuals with CD4 counts of <500 cells/mm3. They were neither on any anti-HIV therapy nor on any herbal supplement before starting the study treatment. The patients were given the Inochi New Medicine immune booster treatment.
Results : Forty seven participants were successfully followed-up after six months on the herbal supplement. Fourteen of the 47 participants (29.8%) showed a statistically significant increase in their CD4 counts (p = 0.000). Twenty three of 47 participants (50%) showed a statistically significantly increase in their CD8 counts (p = 0.000). Seven of 43 participants (16.3%) had their viral loads decreased by more than 0.5 log copies/ml (p = 0.032).
Conclusion : It is concluded from this study that the Inochi New Medicine immune booster produced quantitative improvements in most participants. An extensive follow-up study is necessary to investigate other influencing factors in this improvement / lack of improvement.
The coexistence of hyperglycaemia with hypertension in a rural black community of the Limpopo Province : is obesity an interconnecting parameter? : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 27, pp 12 –17 (2013)More Less
Introduction Diabetes mellitus, hypertension (HTN) and obesity have emerged as major medical and public health issues worldwide. These three metabolic conditions together account for 24% of the global risk of mortality.
Purpose The purpose of the study was to establish whether hyperglycaemia coexists with HTN and whether obesity is an interconnecting parameter.
Methods Empirical, cross-sectional, quantitative and community-based study. The sample consisted of 286 females and 96 males aged 18-65 years, randomly selected. Fasting blood samples were analysed for glucose using the ILab 300 Plus Chemistry System Analyser. Blood pressure was measured using the Omron MI-5 device. Weight and height were measured using a weighing scale and the Seca telescopic height-measuring rod, respectively. Body mass index was calculated from weight and height. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21.0. Cross-tabs, student t-test, chi-squared, logistic regression, means and percentages were statistics used to obtain and express the results.
Results Participants characteristic means were significantly higher in females than in males, except for systolic blood pressure. Obesity prevalence rate was significantly higher in females than in males (p=0.001). Obesity prevalence rates in hyperglycaemia-hypertension coexistence: 60% for overall; 69.3% for females; 0.0% for males and the p values for prevalence rate difference between coexistence and non-coexistence were: overall =0.03; females =0.04 and 1.00 for males. Obesity and age were significant predictors of hyperglycaemia-hypertension coexistence (obesity: OR=4.90; p= 0.003 in bivariate and OR=3.67; p=018 in the multivariate; age: OR=1.05; p=0.004 in bivariate; OR=1.05; p=0.012 in multivariate). In females, obesity, hyperglycaemia and hypertension prevalence rates increased fairly with age, than was in males.
Conclusion The study indicated high metabolic disorders in the Ga-Mothapo rural community. Hyperglycaemia coexisted appreciably with HTN. Obesity was indicated to be an interconnecting parameter for the coexistence.
Impact of dietary red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) on liver architecture and antioxidant status in the blood and liver of male Wistar rats : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 27, pp 18 –23 (2013)More Less
Antioxidant status and liver histopathology in male rats fed with different doses of red palm oil (RPO) were investigated. Liver and plasma ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total glutathione (GSHt) in the red blood cells (RBC) as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the RBC and liver were determined. Our results showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in both liver and plasma FRAP and RBC GSHt in the RPO fed groups when compared with the control group. CAT activities significantly increased (p<0.05) at both 2 ml and 4 ml RPO groups in both the liver and RBC. GPx activities in the RBC significantly (p<0.05) increased at 2 ml and 4 ml RPO when compared with the control group. RPO did not significantly increase SOD in the RBC while its activities were increased in the liver. There were no histopathological alterations in the liver of RPO fed groups when compared with the control rats. In conclusion, red palm oil could up-regulate the levels of antioxidant enzymes and hence, its dietary consumption could help to boost antioxidant status in the body and thus promote overall well-being.
Source: Medical Technology SA 27, pp 26 –32 (2013)More Less
The literature on quality management is explored to gain insight into the role of quality management in assuring quality products and services. The notion of quality is first described as point of departure for the exploration of systems to produce quality. In considering various approaches to quality management systems, international approaches are explored and some fundamental underlying principles of quality and the application of these principles in the context of medical laboratories are addressed. Standards contain technical specifications or precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. When applied in organisations, they contribute to increasing the reliability and effectiveness of the goods and services delivered. An international standard may be used as such, or may be implemented through incorporation into the national standards of individual counties. Quality management systems in relation to certification and accreditation, and the particular standards applicable to medical laboratories are described in this overview on the global need for quality.
Production of purified water and the measurement of its quality in terms of ionic impurities : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 27, pp 32 –35 (2013)More Less
Contaminants in most municipal feed water supplies make it unsuitable to be used directly in laboratory practice. Pure water today is the most frequently used reagent in laboratories.
Several water purification systems are available, which use either a deionisation or a reverse osmosis process, or both. Selecting the water quality you need, is therefore an important step when purchasing a water purification system.
Operating and maintaining a high purity water system is crucial for laboratory applications, yet many assigned with the task of monitoring their water quality fail to grasp the challenges involved. It is therefore important to gain an understanding of the measuring principles involved.
The aim of this paper is to explain conductivity and resistivity measuring principles to enable laboratories to verify acceptable water quality levels.
The anticancer, antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration of Aloe ferox Mill. leaf extracts : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 27, pp 36 –40 (2013)More Less
Aloe ferox is widely used in South Africa for its anti-inflammatory, laxative, antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study was done to screen A. ferox leaves for anticancer properties, antioxidant activity and to determine its phenolic content in gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay method was used to screen methanolic, and dichloromethane extracts against the MC7 (breast cancer), HCT116 (colon cancer) and PC3 (prostate cancer) cell lines for anticancer activity, using etoposide as the control. The stable radical 2, 2- diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was used to test the radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity of the plant extracts and compared to that of ascorbic acid. The Folin Ciocalteu method was used to determine the phenolic content of the methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous extracts against a gallic acid standard. The methanolic and dichloromethane A. ferox extracts showed inactivity against all the cancer cell lines with a TGI of more than 100 µg/ml. However, Aloe ferox extracts showed antioxidant capacity with an EC50 of 0.865 mg/ml and thus is a potential source of natural antioxidants. The methanol extract (5 mg/ml) of Aloe ferox had the highest polyphenolic content with a GAE of 0.726.
Pre-hospital phlebotomy and point of care testing : relevance and implications for professional emergency care practice : peer reviewed reviewSource: Medical Technology SA 27, pp 40 –45 (2013)More Less
The drawing or sampling of blood refers to the procedure whereby blood is obtained via arterial or venous cannulation from a patient for various diagnostic tests. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA), Professional Board for Emergency Care (PBEC) scope of practice encompasses for what may be diagnostically possible for a person in an emergency situation. The HPCSA ethical rules stipulate that no professional act may be performed by emergency care personnel if it falls outside their scope of clinical practice. This implies an emergency context and the presence of criterion referenced guidelines (in the form of protocols) to support the safe implementation of scope.
Phlebotomy may appear to be a simple and uncomplicated procedure for pre-hospital emergency care providers given that the intermediate and advanced categories can already perform intravenous therapy. However, any invasive procedure and human tissue sampling creates the potential for ethical compromise, particularly in vulnerable or high-risk patients. Therefore, various regulatory, clinical and system directives are needed in order for any invasive procedure to be effective, efficient, ethical and sustainable. This paper aims to provide a perspective on phlebotomy (applicable to all allied health professionals), with regard to regulation, clinical and system requirements against any claim of biomedical need. In the interest of accountable practice, a model of mitigation for the scope of clinical practice and a model for health technology regulation are presented. The emergency care context is presented as a case study.
The relevance for the discipline of biomedical technology is that the determination of need, methodology and the bona fides (and experience) of the clinician has bearing on the admissibility, quality and ethics of phlebotomy. Phlebotomists are integral to the medical laboratory. The question this paper addresses is: what are the considerations for pre-hospital phlebotomy and point of care testing by emergency care providers should they undertake the role of the phlebotomist in emergency and non-emergency cases.