oa Missionalia : Southern African Journal of Mission Studies - Native negotiations of missionary practices in Alta California

Volume 32, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 0256-9507



This paper considers how California Indians negotiated the enculturation programme of the Franciscan missions of Alta California (1769-1830s). With the founding of 21 missions in southern and central California, missionaries subjected coastal hunter and gatherers to an explicit indoctrination programme designed to convert them to the Catholic faith and to civilize them in the ways of Spanish peasants.

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